Chapter 5. Section 2

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1 Chapter 5 Section 2

2 The price of success Roman military success increased the wealth of Roman citizens at home. social and economic consequences.

3 Consequences of wealth The rich got richer while the poor got poorer Wealthy families bought up huge estates, called latifundia, worked by captured slaves This essentially put small farms out of business

4 Consequences of wealth mob This further increased the gap between the rich and the poor Something needed to be done...

5 The Brothers Gracchus Two young Patrician brothers named Tiberius (the older) and Gaius (the younger) were the first to attempt reforms

6 The Brothers Gracchus Tiberius Called on the state to distribute land to poor farmers Gaius Wished for wider ranging reforms For example- the use of public funds to buy grain for the poor

7 The Beginning of the End The Gracchus brothers are eventually murdered plunging the Roman republic into a period of turmoil This showed that the Roman republic was incapable of changing/adapting to new challenges

8 With constant revolts happening throughout the empire, Rome s army of citizen soldiers transformed into a professional military with a soldiers first allegiance to his commander

9 Ruling an Empire

10 The Rise of Caesar Out of the chaos comes Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great Caesar and Pompey -together conquered new lands abroad and the senate at home. Over time, Pompey grew jealous of Caesar s growing success and turns the senate against him.

11

12 Caesar lead his loyal army towards Rome and crossed the Rubicon River from this point there was no turning back He was now embarking on a civil war with Pompey that would change Rome forever

13 Caesar crushed Pompey and his supporters. He then swept around the Mediterranean suppressing rebellions.

14

15 Caesar s Reforms Program of public works to employ the jobless Gave public land to the poor. Reorganized the government of the provinces Granted Roman citizenship to more people. Introduction of a new calendar based on Egyptian knowledge.

16 Caesar s Reign

17 Beware of the Ides of March Fearful of Caesar s growing power and popularity, Caesar s fellow statesmen conspired against him In march 44 B.C. they stabbed him to death.

18 The death of Julius Caesar plunged Rome into a new round of civil wars.

19 Horrible Histories

20 New power struggles Mark Antony was Caesars top general Octavian was Caesar s grandnephew These two joined forces to hunt down Caesar s murderer (s)

21 New power struggles Like Pompey and Caesar, Mark Antony and Octavian soon battled for power. Mark Antony sides with the famous Egyptian queen Cleopatra, but is eventually defeated by the young, brilliant Octavian... her fascinating speak, her beautiful voice, the skill and acuteness of her speech... she spoke six languages... she was a smart negotiant... and a first order military strategist

22 Octavian Augustus The senate gave the triumphant Octavian the title of Augustus (exalted one) and declared him princeps (first citizen). Augustus exercised absolute power but was careful not to call himself king.

23 The Betrayal of Julius

24 Augustus Under Augustus the 500 year old republic came to an end. A new age had dawned -- The age of the Roman empire

25 Augustus

26 Augustus

27 Pax Romana The golden age of Rome lasted from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius It is known as Pax Romana or Roman Peace

28 Pax Romana Augustus undertook economic reforms. The government that Augustus organized functioned well for 200 years. Still the problem persisted Who rules when an emperor, princeps, dictator, ruler, dies?

29 Romans, still hated the idea of a King (even though basically ruled by one) So they rejected the idea of passing down rule through inheritance (father to son)

30 So, when an emperor would die, it would often be followed by times of violence and warfare Augustus was a good emperor, but there were also bad emperors For example

31 Emperor Caligula appointed his favorite horse as consul.

32 Nero viciously persecuted Christians and was blamed for setting a great fire that destroyed much of Rome.

33 They weren't all bad Emperor Hadrian Laws and Walls Marcus Aurelius- The last of the Five Good Emperors

34 don T write: Marcus chose his son Commodus to succeed him. This decision was highly criticized by later historians since Commodus was a political and military outsider, as well as an extreme egotist with neurotic problems

35 Don t write: Yet, Marcus had no real other choice because Commodus was his son and not choosing him would have sparked another civil war

36 For this reason, Marcus Aurelius' death is often held to have been the end of the Pax Romana.

37 Other Notable Emperors Diocletian Divides (~300 A.D.) Constantine Christianity (306A.D.) Issues the Edict of Milan which proclaims religious toleration throughout the empire. Built up the city of Byzantium» Constantinople» Istanbul

38

39 Golden Age

40 Roman Society Patriarchal. Education for both genders Roman gods and goddesses resembled those of the Etruscans and Greeks

41 The roles of family and religion

42 Bread and Circuses Throughout the empire rich and poor alike were entertained by spectacular shows. This is where gladiator contests became popular. During these shows often taking place at The Coliseum the emperor would give out bread

43

44

45

46

47 How do you think the founders of the Roman republic would have viewed the Roman empire?

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