Location. Palatine Hill Tiber River Valley (becomes the forum)

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1 Rome

2 Location Palatine Hill Tiber River Valley (becomes the forum)

3 Physical features of Rome Tiber river-near Palatine Hill Alps Mountains- North of peninsula Apennine Mountains- backbone of Italian peninsula

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8 Founders of Rome Romulus and Remus- brothers sons of the god Mars. Abandoned and saved by a she-wolf.

9 The Aeneid Aeneid- poem by Virgil of the aftermath of Trojan war. Main character- Aenaes

10

11 Etruscans A clan of Farmers Tired of the outlaws Conquered Rome Cruel to the Romans Romans rebelled wiped out Etruscans

12 Governments Kingdom=monarchy Senate=patricians Assembly=plebeians Republic Led by two consuls-one year term Senate and assembly still there Tribune-plebeian representative in senate Veto- I forbid

13 Gov. cont. Empire- led by emperor Senate and assembly- almost no power Emperor called Caesar Leadership was a Dynasty

14 Punic Wars Part 1 Rome vs. Carthage Rome victorious- wins Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica and Money

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16 Punic Wars part 2 Carthaginian leader=hannibal Crosses the alps with Elephants Army ill equipped 20 years of fighting Flavius- dictator of Rome Splits army forcing Hannibal home Scipio- wins the battle of Zama Rome wins Spain

17 Punic War part 3 Rome wipes out Carthage finally Surprise attack

18 Classes of People Patricians 1 st class nobility= senate Plebeians average citizen- assembly Freedmen non citizens hard life no food no jobs Slaves the largest class

19 Types of clothing Tunic =t-shirt like under garment or outer depending on temp Toga= three times the length of wearer. Senators-purple stripe and red sandals Palla- toga like garment for women. Any color but white

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21 Enter Julius Caesar From wealthiest family in Rome Champion of the Plebeians/problem for the senators. Senators send him to Spain to disgrace him Does well in Spain Send him to Gaul as a General (Gaul is filled with barbarians) Conquers barbarians within four years.

22 Julius cont. Ordered home by senators. Crosses the Rubicon river First civil war will follow Julius Caesar vs Senators Julius wins Made dictator for life Romans don t like kings Meets Cleopatra on trip to Egypt

23 Cont Brings back to Rome Cleo insults the Romans. They hate her Cleo has a son with Julius Senators scheme to kill Caesar Ides of March Brutus Assassination and aftermath

24 2 nd Civil war Marc Antony- Caesar s right hand man Octavian- Caesars nephew/ adopted son Marc & Octavian vs Senators Empire is split West- Octavian East- Marc Antony Marc goes to Egypt Hello Cleopatra Gets married-romans hate her

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26 3 rd Civil war Octavian vs Marc Antony & Cleopatra In short time Oct. forces overcome Marcopatra Lovers try to fake their death She takes love potion #9 but he doesn t know Marc kills himself she wakes kills herself

27 Octavian/Augustus Caesar

28 Augustus During his 40 yrs of rule major event Birth of Christ-went relatively unnoticed Would be the start of Christianity For 300 years Christians were seen as criminals Treated poorly until the rule of Constantine

29 Octavian Rules Gets new name from senators Augustus Caesar First emperor of Rome Pax Romana- 100 years of peace Augustus- first emperor- builds many new buildings

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37 Forum Forum-business, Government, religious, entertainment center of Rome

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39 Aqueduct

40 Buildings

41 Roman Road

42 Built by Romans: Roman baths Circus Maximus Roads Aqueducts Arena- the Coliseum

43 Coliseum Games Animal vs animal Animal vs man Man vs man= Gladiator fights Fights could be on huge level even water battles

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52 Constantine Failing in battle, Const. makes promise to God- Wins battle- legalizes Christianity Christians can now worship openly Before in catacombs Constantine troubled by Rome- wants to move the capital

53 Moves to Constantinople (city of Constantine) Had been Byzantium Located in modern day Turkey Started the split in Roman Empire Eastern/Western Roman Empire Goes back and forth

54 Eastern Empire own Gov. and religion Eastern Orthodox Church Western- own Gov. and religion Roman Catholic church Western starts to slip and Germanic tribes attack frequently- chip away at empire Fall of Rome 476 A.D. Much of Rome destroyed

55 Eastern Empire- called Byzantine Empire After the fall of Rome ancient times comes to an end.

56 Romance Languages Latin based languages Spanish French Italian Portuguese Romanian

In addition to Greece, a significant classical civilization was ancient Rome. Its history from 500 B.C A.D is known as the Classical Era.

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