World History Topic 6: Ancient Rome

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1 World History Topic 6: Ancient Rome Lesson 1 The Roman Republic Key Terms Etruscans republic patrician consul dictator plebeian tribune veto legion

2 World History Topic 6: Ancient Rome Lesson 1 The Roman Republic Text 1: The Rise of the Roman Civilization How did the land around Rome differ from that of Greece? Mountains north and west How did this geography help Rome? What was the name given to the people that settled the villages that later became Rome? Who was Romulus and Remus? What was it about the two brothers that made Romans feel like they were special? Why would the early Romans know so much about the Etruscans? What are some things the Romans learned from the Etruscans?

3 Text 2: The Early Roman Republic How did the Romans gain power over the Etruscans? What key change did the Romans make to their government after taking control from the Etruscans? The governing body was controlled by the patricians? What was the purpose of this body? How did one become consul? What was the job of the consuls? Under what circumstances could one become a dictator in the Roman republic? How was the dictator s power limited? What were the Twelve Tables, and why were they important to the plebeian class? What other power did the plebeians possess in the Roman government? In what ways did the Roman republic influence the U. S. Constitution?

4 World History Topic 6: Ancient Rome Lesson 1 The Roman Republic Text 3: The Roman Society Who had all the power in the Roman family? What social rights did women have in the republic? What subjects did Roman children spend most of their time learning? Use an outside source. In your own words, what is rhetoric? In what ways did Roman religion compare to that of the Greeks? Use a few examples from the text to support your answer. Give a couple examples of how the Romans worshipped their gods.

5 Text 4: The Roman Republic Expands How long did the Roman republic last? Who made up the legions of the Roman army? How did they get paid in the beginning of the Roman republic? What rights and responsibilities did Rome give to conquered peoples. What did Rome provide those conquered people who behaved? How did Rome unify and protect it conquests?

6 World History Topic 6: Ancient Rome Lesson 2 The Roman Empire Key Terms imperialism latifunda census Huns inflation Constantine Constantinople mercinaries Tiberius Gaius Gracchus Julius Ceasar Augustus Hadrian Diocletian

7 World History Topic 6: Ancient Rome Lesson 2 The Roman Empire Text 1: Empire Building Through Conquest With whom did Rome fight the Punic Wars with? What was the outcome of the First Punic War? Exactly how did the outcome change the geography of the Roman empire? What strategy did Hannibal use to surprise the Romans in the Second Punic War? How did the Romans counter Hannibal in the Third Punic War? What position did Rome hold after the Punic Wars? What did Rome do to make sure that Carthage never threatened them again? 3. How did Rome take control of the eastern Mediterranean region? What did the Romans call Mare Nostrum? What does Mare Nostrum translate to in English?

8 What two things brought riches to the Roman republic? How did the Greek slaves end up having an influence on the Romans? Explain the cause and effect slavery and conquest had on the widening between the rich and poor. How did the Gracchus brothers try to change what was happening between the classes? Text 2: Empire Building Through Conquest Explain the issue that was at the main reason for the century of conflicts following the death of the Gracchus brothers? How did events in the military lead to the decline of the Roman republic? How did Julius Caesar gain fame as a military leader?

9 World History Topic 6: Ancient Rome Lesson 2 The Roman Empire: Rise and Decline (cont.) Text 2: The Roman Republic Declines (cont.) Who led the opposition to Julius Caesar, and what was his solution to end the threat of Caesar s army? Was he successful at stopping Caesar? Why were many people in the republic upset with Julius Caesar s demands to lead Rome? What were some of Julius Caesar s many accomplishments as leader of the Romans? How did Julius Caesar s enemies get revenge against him? Who were the two leading candidates to replace Julius Caesar as leader of Rome? Text 3: The Roman Empire What two titles did the Roman senate give Octavian? Although he would not call himself king, what two things did Augustus have or do like a king? What did Augustus do to reform the government of the Roman empire?

10 3. What did Augustus do to help the economy of the Roman empire? Explain effect did these reforms had on the Roman empire for the next 200 years? What effect did the death of Augustus have on the Roman empire? Identify two of Hadrian s accomplishments. Describe the policy of bread and circuses?

11 World History Topic 6: Ancient Rome Lesson 2 The Roman Empire: Rise and Decline (cont.) Text 4: The Roman Empire Splits In what ways did the following become factors leading to the gradual splitting of the Roman Empire? political turbulence military economic turbulence social issues How did Diocletian further split the Roman empire? What laws did Diocletian make to guarantee a constant supply of goods? 3. How did Constantine further split the Roman empire?

12 In what ways did Constantine help the Christian church establish itself in the Roman empire? How effective were Diocletian s and Constantine s efforts at reform? Give specific examples to support your claim. Text 5: Rome Faces Invasions Cause and Effect: How did wars in Asia cause a ripple effect which caused the northern and eastern exteriors of Roman borders to become vulnerable? wars in Asia, which caused which caused, which caused, which caused, which caused, Describe how each these people led to the downfall of Rome. Aleric Atilla the Hun Odoacer -

13 World History Topic 6: Ancient Rome Lesson 2 The Roman Empire: Rise and Decline (cont.) Text 6: Why Did Rome Fall What military factors led to the fall of Rome? How did political turmoil lead to the fall of Rome? In what ways did economics lead to the downfall of the Rome?

14 What societal issues led to the downfall of Rome? Discuss two ways the Roman Empire lived on even after the fall of Rome.

15 World History Topic 6: Ancient Rome Lesson 3 The Legacy of Rome Key Terms Virgil satirize mosaic engineering aqueduct Ptolemy Text 1: Roman Literature, History, and Philosophy What three cultures made up the Greco-Roman civilization? What was the purpose of Virgil s Aeneid? What was the purpose of Roman satire? How did Roman historians promote a sense of patriotism?

16 What is Livy saying about history in this quote? Do you agree with him? Why or why not?... in history you have a record of the infinite variety of human experience plainly set out for all to see; and in that record you can find for yourself and your country both examples and warnings: fine things to take as models, base things, rotten through and through, to avoid. Livy, The History of Rome How did the content of Livy s writing differ than that of Tacitus? What is stressed in the Stoic philosophy?

17 World History Topic 6: Ancient Rome Lesson 3 The Legacy of Rome Text 2: Roman Art, Architecture, and Drama What did Roman sculptors try to accomplish in their art? What is a fresco? On what themes was Roman drama based? 3. On what themes was Roman comedy based? What building style did the Romans borrow from the Greeks? What building material did the Romans invent? What building design has made the Pantheon famous?

18 Describe the Colosseum. the Colosseum? What structures around the world are based on the design of What public buildings in the United States can trace its design back to the Romans? Text 3: Roman Achievements in Science and Engineering What group did most of the scientific and mathematical studies during the Roman empire? In what ways did Roman engineers use the scientific and mathematical knowledge they had accumulated? What was the purpose of the public baths in Rome? What advances did these men make in the field of science? Plolemy Galen Pliny the Elder

19 World History Topic 6: Ancient Rome Lesson 3 The Legacy of Rome Text 3: Roman Achievements in Science and Engineering (cont.) How did the Roman put science to practical use in: geography medicine Text 4: Roman Law Unites the Empire What was Rome greatest legacy that much of the world still uses today? What is civil law? How did civil law develop into law of the nations? What caused civil law and law of nations to merge? What principles of Roman law is practiced in the United States today? 3.

20 4. 5. Explain how the concept of a trial by jury can traced back to the Roman empire? What principle found in Roman law is different than that of the United States?

21 World History Topic 6: Ancient Rome Lesson 4 The Origins of Christianity Key Terms Give the definition or importance of the following in your own words. Use the term as it applies to this lesson only. messiah apostle Paul martyr clergy bishop patriarch pope heresy Augustine Christian Bible Constantine

22 Text 1 Romans Accept Many Religions What were Roman citizens expected to do in exchange for toleration of their religious beliefs and practices? What happened as the Roman empire expanded into Egypt and the areas of the Fertile Crescent? At the time the Roman conquered Jerusalem, what divisions were already taking place among the Jewish people? Look it up. What is a zealot? What was the belief of the Jewish zealots? Math time! What happened to Jerusalem in 70 A. D.? What caused many Jews to leave the holy land? On what does the present-day form of Judaism focus? 3.

23 Text 2: The Teachings of Jesus In what ways did Jesus teachings follow his Jewish teachings? In what ways were his teachings different from his Jewish teachings? Why was Jesus seen as a threat to the Roman authorities? Text 3 Christianity Spreads From what language does the word christ originate? What is the English translation of the word? What was the purpose of Paul s letters? 3. Why was the use of Greek ideas by Paul important to the spreading of Christianity? What official proclamation ended the persecution of Christian throughout the Roman empire? What Roman emperor made Christianity the official religion of the empire? Text 4: The Growth of the Christian Church With what titles did early Christian call one another?

24 What roles did women have in the early Christian church? Through words or other type of visual, explain the hierarchy of the Church? How did the pope come to be centered in Rome? What important part of the church liturgy was created at the Council of Nicea?

25 World History Topic 6 Study Guide Explain the structure of the government for the Roman republic. What power did tribunes have in the Roman republic? Why was ancient Italy easier to unify than ancient Greece? From what culture did the Romans learn about the construction of arches? What geographical features did Hannibal have to deal with when he left Spain to invade the Italian peninsula? Who were the latifundia, and how did they change the economy and society of the Romans? Translate Veni, vidi, vici., and to what activity was Julius Caesar referring when he said it? How did the Roman army lead to the downfall of the Roman republic? What did the poet Horace mean by these words? "Greece has conquered her rude conqueror." As Rome's first emperor, how did Augustus build a stable government? What concepts are features of both ancient Roman law and our own? For what architectural structure is the Pantheon most famous? Which group's belief in one God excused it from worshiping Roman gods? What type of short stories with moral lessons did Jesus often use to teach his lessons? Why was Jesus a threat to Roman authorities? What factors of the Roman empire helped with the spread of Christianity? Why was Rome's tolerant attitude toward religion not extended to Christians? Describe how Roman civilization in Italy developed between 800 B.C. and 509 B.C. Explain why citizens were motivated to serve as soldiers in the Roman republic. Summarize two factors that led to the fall of the Roman empire. Explain how the Roman emperors Constantine and Theodosius contributed most directly to the establishment of Christianity in Rome.

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