The Roman Republic. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline 10/20/2011. Chapter 6

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1 The Roman Republic Chapter 6 Chapter Outline The Romans built a great city The Roman Republic spread its power Republican government collapsed in Rome Chapter Outline The Romans built a great city What city did the Romans build? Where did they build it? Why did they build it where they built it? The Roman Republic spread its power How did it spread its power? At whose expense did Roman power expand? What were the key factors in that expansion? Republican government collapsed in Rome Why did it collapse? Why did it collapse at the particular time it collapsed? What could have been done to prevent its collapse? 1

2 Romans Built a Great City Geography s impact on Roman success Greeks, Latins and Etruscans Rome s religious borrowing Overthrown kings followed by a Republic Rome valued family ties Class divisions in Rome Rome s mighty army Romans Built a Great City Geography s impact on Roman success How did geography help/hinder Roman success? Greeks, Latins and Etruscans What did these groups have to do with Rome? Rome s religious borrowing Where did the Romans borrow from? What did they borrow? What was original to them? Overthrown kings followed by a Republic Why were the kings overthrown? Why did the Romans establish a Republic after their early kings? Rome valued family ties Why? What effect did this have on Roman culture? Class divisions in Rome What were the class divisions in Ancient Rome? What benefits/problems did these divisions create? Rome s mighty army Why was the Roman army so effective? Geography s Impact on Roman Success Midpoint of Mediterranean Midpoint of Italian peninsula 15 miles inland, near an easy Tiber crossing Mountainous, but not rugged Alps provide some protection Fertile lands around Rome 2

3 Etruscans Etruscans Entered Northern Italy between BC Likely arrived from Asia Minor Civilized, literate people with writing system adapted from Greek pages/2007/04/02/science/03 etrusc.graphic.html Latins Settled on Tiber s banks in region they called Latium after arriving over the Alps around 1000 BC Began as a settlement of shepherds Romulus, Rome s legendary founder, established Rome in 753 BC Latins Greeks Established approximately 50 colonies in S. Italy and Sicily around BC Brought all of Italy into contact with Greek civilization Greeks 3

4 Rome s Religious Borrowings Roman religion influenced by Greek and Etruscan traditions Polytheistic like the Greeks, but Gods did not initially have names or personalities Spirits associated with daily cares Etruscan custom of taking the auspices was adopted by early Romans Over time, Romans adopted Greek Gods but gave them their own names Overthrown Kings followed by Republic Royal Era approximately BC Rome had 7 kings during this period, some Roman, some not Last king s son attacked Lucretia, people revolted and declared a republic in 509 BC Republic s government was not a democracy Not all citizens had the right to vote Roman s valued family ties Roman emphasis on discipline, strength and loyalty (gravitas) Family at the heart of Roman culture Pater familias head of household/father of family also chief priest Complete, total control over property and family members Roman women ran household affairs, had citizenship, could own property and testify in court Social interaction between the sexes was allowed Wives often advised on business and political affairs No right to vote 4

5 Class divisions in Rome Patrician families descended from Rome s patres or Founders Ancestry was basis for authority for law-making Plebian class made up of common farmers, artisans and merchants This class had the right to vote Rarely held political office and thus had limited power Birth, not merit or wealth, determined social standing Intermarriage forbidden by law in early Republic Rome s Mighty Army Threat of war forced both Patrician and Plebian men to serve as both farmers and soldiers Army made up of Legions men organized into centuries of approximately 80 men. Legion included cavalry and infantry Greater flexibility than Greek phalanx due to century system Vocabulary Republic Gravitas Pater familias Toga Patrician Plebian Legion Century Italy Rome Romulus Palatine Hill Alps Tiber River Apennines Latins Etruscans Forum 5

6 The Roman Republic Spread its Power Plebians slowly won more power Rome achieved a balanced government Rome won control of Italy Rome governed Italy skillfully Rome fought with Carthage Hannibal sought revenge on Rome Rome made conquests to the East Rome finally destroys Carthage Background The era of the Roman Republic (approximately 509 BC 44 BC) was divided into two periods BC Rome s troops battled for control of Italy Plebians forced patricians to surrender some power BC Civil war & the rise of army leaders Triumph of Julius Caesar Expansion of Roman rule around the Mediterranean Plebians slowly won more power SPQR Senatus Populusque Romanus or Senate and the Roman people Senate dominated by patricians Plebians barred from high government positions, army command, high priests or other high offices BC Plebians forced reform by refusing to military service Plebians gained access to political offices, obtained favorable laws End of debt enslavement End of ban on patrician / plebian inter-marriage 6

7 Rome s 12 Tables Cicero, De Oratore, I.44: Though all the world exclaim against me, I will say what I think: that single little book of the Twelve Tables, if anyone look to the fountains and sources of laws, seems to me, assuredly, to surpass the libraries of all the philosophers, both in weight of authority, and in plenitude of utility. 451 BC Rome s laws were written down for the 1 st time Established the right to protection under the law for all citizens Rome Achieved a Balanced Government Three-part government Office of dictator appears in times of crisis Law making, army command 6 month terms Chosen by consuls, elected by Senate The ideal dictator Left farm to take over as dictator Defeated enemies in 15 days Stepped down and returned to his farm Cincinnatus 7

8 Rome won control of Italy Political struggles between patricians and plebians calm in Rome Rome s legions subdued Italy, city by city Success interrupted by defeat at the hands of the Gauls Rome was reconstructed with larger, stronger walls War with the Greeks 282 BC Greek colonists in Southern Italy appeal to Pyrrhus for protection from Roman legions Pyrrhic victory Rome governs Italy skillfully By 275 BC, Rome controls all of Italy except the Po Valley Different treatment for different people and regions Full citizens have right to marry, vote, appeal for justices Half-citizens no right to vote Allies required to contribute troops, free to govern without Roman interference 8

9 Rome fought with Carthage Athenian decline leads to trading domination by Alexandria and Carthage in the Mediterranean 264 BC Rome goes to war over Sicily and the Western Mediterranean Punic Wars 3 periods of struggle Carthage strong navy of 500 ships, mercenary army, cultural focus on trade Rome no navy, strong army of 500,000 troops, cultural focus on military success 1 st War Rome copies and improves on Carthaginian warship design 23 year war, ends in defeat of Carthage by Rome Rome gains Sicily Punic Wars Hannibal Sought Revenge on Rome At age 9, swears to defeat Rome At 29, in 218 BC, leads army through Spain, over Alps to attack Rome, launching 2 nd Punic War 13 years of success Defeated when Scipio Africanus attacks Carthage and draws Hannibal into the battle of Zama 9

10 Rome made conquests to the East Rome s dominance extends and focuses on Greece and the eastern Mediterranean for 70 years Fragments of Alexander s empire were weakened by rivalries Rome initially welcomed as a liberator Later on Rome becomes more ruthless Rome finally destroys Carthage Third Punic war follows destruction of Corinth Carhago delenda est Cato speaks against Carthage in the Roman Senate Scipio Aemilianus leads Rome against Carthage, destroys the city Vocabulary Consul Veto Senate Assembly Dictator Mercenary SPQR Twelve Tables Cincinnatus Gauls Pyrrhus Carthage Punic Wars Hannibal Battle of Zama Scipio Africanus Scipio Aemilianus 10

11 Republican Government Collapsed in Rome Gap between rich & poor grew Slavery became widespread The Gracchi attempted reforms Army leaders took political power Julius Caesar rose to power Caesar made himself ruler of Rome Civil war followed Caesar s death Octavian became sole ruler Gap between rich & poor grew Latifundia Proletariat Corruption Impacts Imports of luxuries Riots Slavery became widespread First Punic War led to 75,000 formerly free men and women becoming slaves Slaves Low-priced, unskilled slaves worked in mines, on farms, in vineyards, in shipyards High-priced slaves worked in households as teachers, tutors, musicians, cooks, private secretaries, messengers, etc. What risks to Roman culture did slavery present? 11

12 Gladiators The Gracchi s Reforms Two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius elected by assembly to represent the Plebian class as Tribunes. Tiberius offered land grants, redistribution of land Gaius offered programs to ease unemployment, limit power of Senate Fruits of Social & Political Conflicts Hellenized, urban culture Roman literature imitates Greek models More opportunities for Roman aristocrats to enrich themselves politically and materially Demise of foreign enemies = loss of patriotism and Roman value of frugality 12

13 Marius Gaius Marius ( BCE) Consecutive terms as Consul Opened the army to the property-less All freeborn Italians made citizens Social War propelled Sulla to power Sulla leads his army against Marius and Rome itself Marius regains power and enters on his own reign of terror Sulla Pompey & The 1 st Triumvirate Formation of the First Triumvirate --Crassus, Pompey and Julius Caesar Julius Caesar s daughter Julia marries Pompey 13

14 Caesar Triumvirate dissolves and Pompey made sole consul another tradition destroyed Julius Caesar marches on Rome; Crosses the Rubicon (49 BCE) Victory over Pompey and love affair with Cleopatra assassination of Julius Caesar (44 BCE) -- The Ides of March Civil War 2 nd Triumvirate Lepidus, Octavian and Marc Antony Octavian & Marc Antony quarrel over Cleopatra Octavian becomes sole ruler, accepts title of Augustus 14

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