Summary. The origins of Rome The Monarchy The Republic. The Empire. Make your own timeline. Society Institutions Expansion Crisis of the Republic

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2 The origins of Rome The Monarchy The Republic Society Institutions Expansion Crisis of the Republic The Empire Society and Economy Pax Romana The crisis Make your own timeline Summary

3 The Origins of Rome Italian Peninsula was populated by Latins (in the centre), Etruscans (in the north) and Greeks (in the south) In the 8th century BC some Latin tribes settled close to the Tiber River and founded the city of Rome (753 b.c.)

4 The Origins of Rome 9jI

5 The Monarchy ( B.C.) The king has absolute power He was responsible for justice army religion He was helped by a Senate made up of patricians (members of the aristocracy) There were 7 kings, 4 Latin and 3 Etruscan Rome has the first sewerage system: The Cloaca Maxima

6 QUESTIONS 1) Which parts of the Italian Peninsula did the greeks inhabit? 2) In which year was Rome founded? 3) How did the monarchy end?

7 The Republic ( B.C.) In 509 BC there was a revolt that remove the last Etruscan king and Rome became a Republic

8 SOCIETY Patricians: (minority of the population). They were descendants of the families that founded Rome. They owned land, livestock and governed the city Plebeian: (mayority of the population) they were peasants, craftmen, and traders who had no political rights to be elected.they include anyone that arrived after the foundation of Rome Liberti: freed slaves, they were not citizens Slaves: prisioners of war, people who couldn t pay their debts or children from slaves

9 The Republic ( B.C.) Plebeian rebellion 5th Century BC: the plebeian got the right to choose their own representants: The Plebeian Tribunes In the middle of the same century, after another revolt, the Law of the Twelve Tables established Roman law equating the rights of plebeian to the patricians: the plebeian gained the right to held public offices and marry patricians

10 Institutions during the Republic (I) There were 3 main institutions: The Assemblies: Citizens that vote on laws and chose magistrates The Magistrates: Theý were in charged of government Consul superiors Aedile Praetor Inferiors Questor Censor Plebeian Tribune The Senate: Made up of 300 former magistrates They organized foreign policy&finance. They also ratified laws approved b the Assembly

11 Institutions during the Republic (II) Were all people treated equally? No, people were treated differently based on their wealth, gender, and citizenship. Women did not get the right to vote or hold office. Also, if you had more money, you got more voting power. Consuls and most Senators only came from the rich aristocracy. This may sound unfair, but it was a big change from other civilizations In Rome, the regular people have considerable power through the Assembly and their Tribunes.

12 The Military Expansion Rome had a large, wealth and efficient army We divide the conquest in 3 periods: BC: Italian Peninsula BC: Punic Wars 2nd Century BC-2nd Century AD: Greece, Eastern Mediterranean, Hispania, Gallia, Britannia Homework: read pg 128 Consequences of expansion and make an outline.

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14 The Punic Wars ( BC) The Punic Wars were fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 First Punic War took place in Sicily. Initially Carthage took advantage. However, Rome quickly built up a large navy of over 100 ships and soon dominated Carthage and won the war. Second Punic War: The Carthage leader Hannibal, made a daring crossing of the Alps to attack Rome and northern Italy. However the Roman general Scipio Africanus defeated him at the final battle of Zama. Third Punic War ( BC): In the Third Punic War Rome attacked the city of Carthage.

15 Hannibal & Punic Wars em (Full Movie BBC ) Play : From 2-11 (Sagunto) From 21,50-24 Elephants From 32 34,14 1º bat en suelo italiano From provocación a los romanos From Military tactic. Very violent

16 When? The Crisis of the Republic At the end of 1st Century BC Why? Government was not prepared to rule a huge territory Much social inequality => frequent conflicts =>social unrest => Revolt of the Gracci Brothers (2 nd C BC) =>fair distribution of wealth) => Revolt of Spartacus (1 st C. BC) The Senate had to give power to military commanders (dictators) They fought against each other (Civil wars) One of them was Julius Caesar

17 Julius Caesar Julius Caesar was a great general and an important leader in ancient Rome. He held titles as consul, plebeian tribune, high commander of the army, and high priest. He reorganized the army. He conquered the Gallia

18 Julius Caesar People supported and believed in Caesar they thought he can solve their problems. So he also became more and more powerful. In 46 BC the Senate made him dictator for life and he ruled like a king. He made many changes to Rome. He built new buildings and temples in the city of Rome. He even changed the calendar to the now famous Julian calendar with 365 days and a leap year. 44 BC He was killed outside the Senate

19 After Caesar s death After the death of Julius Caesar, the Roman Empire was ruled by three of Caesar's former generals: Lepidus Marc Antony Octavius Triunvirate Was Octavius a good or a bad leader? (worksheet) Octavius forced Lepidus to retire from public life. Then he planned a civil war against Marc Antony as he fell in love with Cleopatra. Both were defeat by Octavius at the battle of Actium

20 The Roman Empire: Octavius The Senate gave Octavius the name Augustus ( chosen by the gods ) He was made Emperor => new type of government: All civil and military powers were concentrated in the Emperor The old institutions of the Republic had only symbolic power (the Emperor chose all governent officials)

21 Augustus and the Pax Romana Augustus brought peace to the land and began to rebuilt much of the empire. He built many roads, buildings, bridges etc. He conquered much of the land around the Mediterranean Sea that were protected by limes (forts along the boundaries) Under his rule, Rome experienced peace and prosperity.

22 Are we still Romans?

23 Religion Read your book pg 134. (homework) Do activities from 1- to 6. (homework)

24 Crisis of the Empire When expansion stopped, Rome experienced crisis (3rd Century AD) Weakening of imperial authority Military revolts Economic problems included lack of slaves Attacks by Germanic peoples 395 AD Theodosius divided the territory between his two sons: Honorius and Arcadius

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26 The Germanic Kingdoms From the begining of the 5th Century the Germanic Peoples were pushed into the Western Roman Empire by the expansions of the Huns (of central Asia) 476 AD Romulus Augustulus was the last emperor. This marks the end of Ancient History and the begining of the Middle Ages _rome_questions.php

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28 ECONOMY - Based on slavery agriculture/ craftwork - Agriculture - Mediterranean Triad - Roman plough - Villas - Mining - Owner state they rented to particulars

29 ECONOMY - Craftwork workshops with slaves - Trade - Internal better roads - External: Exported: manufactured products Imported: raw materials

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