Label the following: Adriatic Sea Alps Corsica Ionian Sea Italian Peninsula Mediterranean Sea Po River Rome Sardinia Sicily Tiber River Carthage

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2 Label the following: Adriatic Sea Alps Corsica Ionian Sea Italian Peninsula Mediterranean Sea Po River Rome Sardinia Sicily Tiber River Carthage

3 There are 7 hills rising up above the Tiber River. Why do you think the hills would be an advantage for Rome s military? The hills made the area easy to defend.

4 Rome is located near the Tiber river. The river made the soil fertile Any connections you can think of?? The river was also a great source of fresh water

5 Rome was at the center of the long, narrow peninsula known as Italy Rome was near the center of the Mediterranean Sea the Mediterranean Sea was the center of the Western World. Why do you think this was important?

6 Video from Discovery Ed and handout

7 900 BC- the first settlements began to happen in Rome 600 BC- The Etruscans took power 509 BC- Romans overthrew the Etruscans they kept a few of their ideas, though Gods and goddesses Greek alphabet that the Etruscans used Togas (clothing) and other cultural ideas

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9 A REPUBLIC is a government in which citizens who have the right to vote select their leaders, then the leaders make decisions for the people A republic can also be known as a representative democracy Rome s government was divided into three branches: CONSUL SENATE ASSEMBLY Sound familiar???

10 Some vocabulary you need before moving on: Consul: a chief official who lead the Roman government Patrician: a member of the wealthy, upperclass families of Rome Plebian: an ordinary citizen in Rome

11 Also known as the Assembly of Centuries Only 2 members Started out as only patricians, but after 367 BC a law stated that there had to be one plebeian and one patrician See handout for responsibilities and powers

12 Had 300 members who served as advisors to consul The most powerful branch of the government Before 367 BC, they had to be patricians, but after that plebeians could join the Senate See handout for more on the Senate

13 Also known as the Plebeian Council This is where the common people were able to vote, make laws, etc. See handout for more information

14 Checks and balances were in place to make sure that no branch had too much power Romans did not want a long-term dictator or king, but were ok with a temporary dictator if the consuls could not agree. The senate could appoint a dictator for a 6 month time period to settle disputes Complete the Roman Checks and Balances worksheet

15 There were MANY issues between patricians and plebeians! Patricians benefited from Rome s conquests they took riches and slaves from the people who were conquered. Slaves were put to work and plebeians were fired Plebeians were unemployed and unhappy! They decided not to fight in the Roman army anymore.

16 Because of drama with the plebeians, patricians had to give in and create the 12 Tables. The 12 Tables are laws that are for EVERYONE! Hand out/worksheet

17 During the conflicts between the patricians and plebeians, the arm started conquering lands previously belonging to Carthage! These were known as the Punic Wars

18 By 120 BC, Rome started declining because generals started fighting with each other and Consuls didn t respect each other. Rome seemed like it was about to fall apart until a general named Julius Caesar took over

19 58 BC 51 BC Conquered Gaul What skills would a military general have that would make him well qualified to run a country? Leadership and loyalty from his troops!

20 49 BC- War between Caesar and the Senate He won the war and became dictator of the Roman world for 6 months per republic law. He continued to be a dictator for a lot longer, though. By 44 BC he named himself dictator for life

21 Romans weren t happy about having another king or dictator. What do you think happened? THIS! March 15, 44 BC he was killed by a group of senators Civil war happened until 27BC Horrible histories?

22 Rome was a republic for 500 years It grew from a city-state to a large territory It had the largest elected government the world had seen up until that point in time Rome was influenced by Greece (hello, Athens? Democracy?) It influenced OUR government, as well. This cycle of influence is known as Western Tradition

23 In 27 BC, Octavian (Caesar s adopted son!) became the first emperor of Rome and was named Augustus which means highly respected preview

24 Intelligent - at first, he ignored the senate but he eventually showed great respect for it - did not act like a king (because he didn t want to be assassinated) Increased the empire s wealth - issued new coins to promote trade - ordered a census (population count) Ruled during the Pax Romana, or Roman Peace

25 The Pax Romana was a period of Roman PEACE and stability Lasted 200 years People and goods traveled easily within the empire Trade with Asia and Africa thrived

26 Why was it successful?? They divided areas into provinces so it would be easier to rule Areas of the empire with a Roman governor supported by an army They let most conquered people remain free They didn t force their way of life upon conquered people

27 Because of this, people: Adopted Roman ways Learned to speak Latin Had more religious freedom Increased trade Increased cooperation especially with tax collecting! All of these things made the empire STRONGER!

28 There 2 HORRIBLE emperors: Caligula and Nero There were several other AWFUL ones, too.

29 There were 5 Good Emperors during this time period: Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius

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31 Weak, corrupt rulers starting with Commodus in AD 180 They stole money Bribed soldiers Had an unstable economy Assassinated each other

32 A mercenary army Mercenaries are soldiers from other countries who are paid to fight They weren t loyal to the cause, they would change sides depending on where the money was!

33 Size of the empire Too big to be ruled from one place Many conquered territories invaded the empire and gained independence

34 Economic problems Increased taxes to pay army Increased unemployment Government produced more coins this caused inflation (an economic situation in which there is more money, but the money has less value)

35 Constantine, a Christian emperor (more about that later!) ended up moving the capital of the Roman empire to Byzantium (in Turkey) in AD 330

36 When Constantine died, the Romans were invaded from the north The eastern half of the Roman Empire lived on as the Byzantine Empire (next unit )

37 Read pages Answer on page 229 : 1 a, b 2 a, b 3 a, b OR Create a RAFT convincing a friend to move to Rome. Make sure you include as much information as you can about daily life!

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