Trouble in the Republic

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1 Trouble in the Republic Large gap between rich and poor ( no middle class) Farmer's: debt, farms ruined by war, small couldn't compete with large Patrician's buying land and creating large farming estates (latifundia) Free people had difficulty finding a job b/c there were so many slaves Corrupt politicians > Bread and Circuses - Cheap food and entertainment for poor to make them happ Gracchus brothers petitioned the senate to divide up latifundia and give it to the poor -Murdered because of their beliefs

2 Military Leader Marius Became consul Recruited poor soldiers Paid them wages & promised them land Changed army f/ volunteer citizens to paid professional Military leaders fighting for power leads to 50 years of civil war

3 Trouble in the Republic January 13, 2015

4 Julius Caesar Name the members of Rome's first triumvirate. List 4 events that led to Julius Caesar's rise to power. If someone uses the phrase "crossing the Rubicon" today, what do they mean? How did Julius Caesar strengthen his power after declaring himself dictator of Rome?

5 Crassus, Pompey, Julius Caesar 1. Became a hero to lower classes 2. Obey or disobey Senate 3. Crossed Rubicon River=civil war 4. Defeated Pompey Making a decision that you can't take back He filled the Senate w/ loyal members

6 List reforms made by Julius Caesar. Describe the Julian calendar. (4) Define "Ides of March". What took place on March 15th in 44 BC? Why did this happen?

7 a. provided land to those w/out b. granted citizenship c. landowners must hire paid workers d. created work for jobless a. 12 months; 365 days b. leap year c. used throughout Europe d. slightly changed-gregorianbirth of Christ March 15th Julius Caesar killed by the Senate b/c they feared he wanted to be king.

8

9 1. Why did the people love Caesar? 2. How did he change Rome?

10 Rome Becomes an Empire 1. Julius Caesar's death led to civil war. 2. What two groups fought against each other? a. Caesar's assassins b. Octavian, Antony, Lepidus 3. What was the outcome? Octavian, Antony, & Lepidus win and create the 2nd triumvirate. Second Triumvirate 4. Lepidus- forced to retire f/ politics by Octavian Octavian- took charge of the western part of Roman world; declared war on Antony Antony- took charge of eastern part of Roman world; fell in love w/ Cleopatra

11 5. Summarize the Battle of Actium. Octavian defeats Antony & Cleopatra who flee to Egypt. When Octavian catches up they kill themselves. Republic ends. Who was Augustus? 6. Cicero a. political leader b. public speaker c. believed in republic form of govt. d. influenced writers of US constitution 7. Republic (in name only) 8. imperator- emperor/commander-in-chief 9. Augustus- majestic one

12 5. Summarize the Battle of Actium. Octavian defeats Antony & Cleopatra who flee to Egypt. When Octavian catches up they kill themselves. Republic ends. Who was Augustus? 6. Cicero a. political leader b. public speaker c. believed in republic form of govt. d. influenced writers of US constitution 7. Republic (in name only) 8. imperator- emperor/commander-in-chief 9. Augustus- majestic one

13 The Emperor Augustus 1. Pax Romana- Roman Peace; 200 years of peace and prosperity 2. Use the chart below to show the changes Augustus made in the Roman Empire and the effects. Causes Effects Built army of 150,000 Safety, strength, protection Conquered new territories Empire expands Fed the poor Less likely to cause trouble Reformed the tax system Tax system is more fair

14 3. Describe the Julio-Claudian emperors. a. no law about how the next emperor was to be selected b. came from Augustus' family line c. not all fit to be leaders d. Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero Unity and Prosperity 4. Vespasian was Nero's general who took the throne and began construction on the Colosseum. The "Good Emperors" 5. Nerva, Hadrian, Trajan, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius 6. Life during the "Good Emperors". a. did not abuse power b. a century of peace c. improved Roman life (ex. helped orphans) d. public building projects (aqueducts, roads, etc.)

15 3. Describe the Julio-Claudian emperors. a. no law about how the next emperor was to be selected b. came from Augustus' family line c. not all fit to be leaders d. Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero Unity and Prosperity 4. Vespasian was Nero's general who took the throne and began construction on the Colosseum. The "Good Emperors" 5. Nerva, Hadrian, Trajan, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius 6. Life during the "Good Emperors". a. did not abuse power b. a century of peace c. improved Roman life (ex. helped orphans) d. public building projects (aqueducts, roads, etc.)

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