The Fall of Ancient Rome. Unit 1

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1 The Fall of Ancient Rome Unit 1

2 Do Now: Wednesday September 7, 2016 What do you remember from your seventh grade study of Ancient Rome? Make a list of everything you remember about the Ancient Romans: accomplishments, inventions, famous people, events, etc.

3 Reading Pages Answers Rome beginnings were from B.C. During this time, the Etruscans, the Greeks, and the Latins all shared the Italian Peninsula. Rome was built on hills near the Apennines Mountain range. This was a good location because they were protected from harsh weather and foreign invasion. The Tiber River was good for trade and transportation. Romans refused to live under the rule of a king, because the last king Tarquin the Proud was a cruel ruler. The new government was called a Republic. In this government, citizens had the power to vote and make laws. These laws protected people s rights and freedoms. Women and slaves were not allowed to participate. Julius Caesar was a Roman general who declared himself dictator for life. He was murdered by the Senate. Octavian was the adopted son of Julius Caesar. As the first emperor of Rome, he took the title Augustus. He created a 200 year period of peace called the Pax Romana.

4 Do Now: Wednesday September 7, 2016 In your opinion, what was Ancient Rome s greatest achievement? Explain your answer in 3-5 complete sentences.

5 Two Movie Options: 1) Super clear HD with no captions 2) Fuzzy with captions

6 Do Now: Monday September 12, 2016 Which three events were the most influential in shaping the Roman Empire? Which three events most changed and impacted the course of Rome s history? Explain your answer in 3-5 sentences.

7 Before Rome was an empire, Rome was a republic, a government made of men elected by the citizens

8 During the early years of the Republic, Rome was often attacked by outside armies. Rome grew stronger and started fighting back. By 270 B.C. they had controlled the whole Italian Peninsula.

9 The Punic Wars were a series of 3 wars that Rome fought against Carthage. After Rome destroyed Carthage, they conquered the Greek city-states. By 140 B.C. Rome controlled the Western Mediterranean region.

10 Territory was divided into provinces. Julius Caesar was a Roman general stationed in the province of Gaul.

11 The people loved Julius Caesar. He improved their lives by: granting citizenship to people in the provinces, expanding the Senate, creating jobs, and building public buildings.

12 Some Senators worried that Caesar would make himself king. On March 15, 44 B.C., Caesar was stabbed to death as he entered the Roman Senate. Led by his friend Brutus, these senators believed that they were saving the republic.

13 Julius Caesar was succeeded by his adopted son Octavian. After a lengthy power struggle and civil war, Octavian was eventually crowned emperor. He took the name Augustus.

14 He brought peace to an unstable region. This two hundred year period of growth and achievement was called the Pax Romana.

15 The Rise of the Roman Empire Storyboard Create a 6 step storyboard that tells the story of Ancient Rome, from its very beginnings to the reign of Augustus. Possible events, people and details to include: Romulus & Remus, bad kings, the rise of the Republic, the Punic Wars, Julius Caesar becomes dictator, the First Triumvirate holds power, the Second Triumvirate holds power, Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra, Julius Caesar is killed, early days before the Republic Each box on your storyboard should include a color illustration and a 1-2 sentence explanation of the event and why it is important.

16 Do Now: Friday September 16, 2016 Think about it: Could there have been a solution to the conflict between the Roman Emperors and the Christians? Could the Emperors have accepted the Christians and maintained their supreme authority? Explain your answer in 3-5 sentences. Constantine s Conversion by Peter Paul Rubens, 1621

17 Jesus was a Jewish man who lived in the Roman Empire during the reign of Augustus. He preached love, equality, and said everyone who lived a good life on earth, would be rewarded with an afterlife. This idea was very popular with poor and enslaved people.

18 Jesus s followers, called Christians, were persecuted by the Romans. Many refused to bow down and worship the Emperor of Rome. This caused tension and conflict within the empire.

19 Think - Pair - Share Why did the Roman Empire fall? What was the single most important event that led to this great civilization s decline?

20 Marcus Aurelius was the last of the five good emperors. After his death, there was a period of weak and dishonest rulers.

21 Terrible Leadership causes turmoil in the Empire... Tiberius (ruled AD 14 37) killed anyone he suspected of being an enemy Gaius (Caligula) (ruled AD 37 41) best known for a series of eccentric actions, such as declaring war on the sea and proclaiming himself a god. Nero (ruled AD 54 68) he was also unquestionably a murderer, starting with his step-brother Britannicus, with whom he had been supposed to share power, and progressing through his wife Octavia, whom he deserted for his lover, Poppeaea, and then had executed Domitian (ruled AD 81 96) He was particularly suspicious of the senate and had a number of leading citizens executed for conspiracy against him, including 12 ex-consuls and two of his own cousins. Commodus (ruled AD ) Vain and pleasure-seeking, Commodus nearly bankrupted the Roman treasury and he sought to fill it up again by having wealthy citizens executed for treason so he could confiscate their property.

22 In the 200s A.D. Rome s economy began to suffer from inflation, meaning a rapid increase in prices caused by money losing its value. Farmers grew less food, artisans produced less work, and shopkeepers shut their doors.

23 Invaders from Northern and Eastern Europe began to attack Rome s borders. Rome doubled its army to protect the empire, but a bigger army mean higher taxes!

24 Romans began losing interest in being a part of the military, so the empire began relying on Germanic warriors to help defend the empire. But these soldiers were not loyal to the empire.

25 Diocletian became emperor in 284 A.D. He thought that the empire was too big for one person to manage. He split the empire in half.

26 Constantine became emperor in 312 A.D. He tried to enact reforms and stop the decline in the west, but was unsuccessful.

27 Constantine moved the capital of the empire from Rome in the west, to Byzantium in the east. He improved this city and renamed it Constantinople.

28 As the Roman Empire grew weaker, tribes in the north grew stronger. The Romans thoughts these people were wild barbarians. Soon these tribes grew restless. They wanted power and money, and the weakening Roman Empire was the perfect target.

29 The Visigoth leader Alaric entered and captured Rome in 410 A.D. They destroyed a great deal of the city and stole many valuable artifacts.

30 In 455 A.D. the Vandals attacked Rome. They destroyed everything in their path, before moving onto Spain and North Africa.

31 In 476 A.D. the last Roman emperor was overthrown by the German chief Odoacer. The Western Roman Empire was over.

32 The Eastern Empire, later renamed the Byzantine Empire, lasted until 1453.

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