Ancient Rome. Chapter 6 Notes

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1 Ancient Rome Chapter 6 Notes Geography of Rome Centrally located in the Mediterranean Basin & distant from east Mediterranean powers 1. Protected: could develop into a great civilization without invasion 1. Alps in north protected against land invasion 2. Mediterranean Sea surrounded Italian Peninsula 2. Well positioned: access to other areas, could spread influence to much of known world Mediterranean Sea provided protection and access to trade Roman Mythology Based on Greek polytheistic religion and was integral to culture, politics, and art Explained natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events Roman gods and goddesses 1. Jupiter: King of the gods, most powerful 2. Juno: Queen of gods, goddess of marriage 3. Apollo: God of music and poetry 4. Diana: Goddess of the hunt 5. Minerva: Goddess of wisdom & war and peace 6. Venus: Goddess of love Gods and goddesses represent symbols & images in literature, art and architecture Roman Republic Republic: Form of government in which power rests with the citizens who have the right to select their leaders Roman republic made major strides in the development of a representative democracy 1. Became a foundation of modern democracy 2. Excluded women, most aliens (non-romans living in the Republic) and slaves from the governing process

2 Social Structure of the Roman Republic Patricians Powerful nobility (few in numbers) Plebeians Majority of population Non-Aristocrats: farmers, artisans, merchants Slaves: not based on race Citizenship Patrician & Plebeian men Selected foreigners Rights and responsibilities of citizenship 1. Taxes 2. Military Service Features of Democracy Representative Democracy Senate (300 members) Comprised of Patricians and would later include Plebeians The Assembly (100 members) More democratic, less powerful than Senate Consuls (Like our President today) Two consuls elected to one year term (could veto other s decision) Commanded & directed army Twelve Tables Written laws of Rome codified Representative democracy more stable than direct democracy of Greeks The Punic Wars Rome v. Carthage B.C. Rome and Carthage were in competition for trade Fought Three Wars 1st War 1. Fought for control of Sicily (Rome s 1st Province) and Western Mediterranean 2. Rome wins: built huge navy 3. Romans boarded Carthaginian boats and fought hand to hand combat.

3 Second Punic War Carthaginian general Hannibal behind 2nd war Brilliant military strategist: wanted revenge for 1st war Assembled 50K infantry, 9K cavalry, & 47 elephants: intended on capturing Rome Hannibal invaded Italian Peninsula, crossed through Alps from northern Italy Rome holds off Hannibal: Carthaginians lose lands in Spain Third Punic War Instigated by Rome: invaded Carthage, burnt the city to the ground, sold survivors into slavery & plowed salt into fields so nothing would grow Rome now controls Mediterranean Consequences of Punic Wars 1. Victory over Carthage allowed Rome, over the next 100 years, to dominate Mediterranean Basin, leading to a diffusion of Roman culture 2. Roman victory, the destruction of Carthage, and expanded trade and wealth for Rome 3. Built roads, aqueducts, expanded navy: became very wealthy due to trade & conquest Evolution of Rome and the Spread of Roman culture Mediterranean basin (Africa, Asia, Europe, including the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean Western Europe 1. Gaul 2. British Isles Expansion of Rome Expansion created problems leading to the decline of Roman Republic 1. Spread of slavery into agricultural system: pushed farmers into cities: too many Plebeians, not enough jobs 2. Migration of small farmers into cities-unemployment 3. Civil War over the power of Julius Caesar 4. Inflation: devaluation of Roman currency- didn t have enough money to buy things they previously could

4 The Origin and Evolution of Imperial Rome Julius Caesar takes control: joined with Crassus and Pompey: known as 1 st Triumvirate: group of three rulers Obtained power through military conquest: Civil War between Senate & Caesar pushed Pompey and Crassus out: Caesar became dictator for life in 44 B.C. Julius Caesar Governed as an absolute ruler: reformed Rome Gave land and created jobs for poor Granted citizenship to many in conquered provinces, expanded Senate so provinces could elect senators Killed March 15, 44 B.C.-Ides of March 1. Senators troubled by growing power, success, and popularity 2. Number of important senators led by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius plot assassination: stabbed Caesar to death Beginning of Roman Empire The Roman Republic ended with the assassination of Julius Caesar and Rome fell into civil war. Second Triumvirate: Octavian, Marc Anthony, and Lepidus 1. Ended in jealousy and violence 2. Octavian rose to power: assumed name Augustus Caesar Augustus Caesar 1. Defeated Marc Anthony to become Rome s 1 st Emperor 2. Senate & Assembly cease to exist 3. Augustus unified and enlarged empire using imperial authority and the military Pax Romana Period of 200 years of peace & prosperity under imperial rule Augustus established Roman Empire by instituting civil service, rule by law, common coinage, and secure travel & trade throughout the empire Expansion and solidification of Roman Empire, particularly in the Near East Succession 1. Rome s peace and prosperity depended on a peaceful succession of power 2. Augustus failed to provide a peaceful succession of emperors

5 Impact of Pax Romana Economic Impact 1. Established uniform system of money, which helped to expand trade 2. Guaranteed safe travel & trade on Roman roads 3. Promoted prosperity and safety Social Impact 1. Returned stability to social classes 2. Increased emphasis on family Political Impact 1. Created civil service 2. Developed uniform rule of law Christianity: Jewish Roots The Jewish homeland of Palestine had been conquered by the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and Greeks. The Romans came to Judea 63 B.C. and made it a province in A.D. 6. The Jews were expecting a King to come and set them free. Jesus of Nazareth Jesus was a Jew and Roman subject born in 5-6 B.C. Poor traveling rabbi (Jewish teacher) The message of Jesus 1. Taught the Torah 2. God s love for all people, including the poor, and sinful 3. God s invitation to live the life people were made to live (Kingdom of God) 4. People should treat each other with love 5. Conflicted with polytheistic beliefs of Roman Empire Jesus of Nazareth was proclaimed to be Messiah (liberating King) Essential Beliefs, Traditions, and Customs of Christianity 1. Monotheism 2. Jesus as both son and incarnation of God 3. Life after death

6 4. New Testament, containing accounts of life & teachings of Jesus, as well as writings of early Christians 5. Christian doctrine established by early Church Councils Spread of Christianity Carried out by Apostles: followers of Jesus who spread his teachings, including Paul, throughout Roman Empire Popularity of message: Appealed to the poor, ignored wealth and status Pax Romana made Christianity easy to spread 1. Excellent Road system 2. Common languages: Latin and Greek Persecution of Christians Christianity & Judaism initially tolerated Became problem for Roman rulers: refused to worship Roman gods: seen as opposition to Roman rule Emperor Nero 1. Persecuted Christians to point of killing: crucified, burned, or killed by wild animals 2. Exiled, imprisoned, executed Christians for not worshipping Roman gods 3. Early martyrs (a person who willingly suffers death rather than renounce his or her religion) inspired others Despite persecution, Christianity grew. Appeal of Christianity 1. Gave hope to the powerless 2. Appealed to those repelled by the extravagancy of Rome Emperor Constantine Prayed for help during battle and saw a sign Ordered Christian symbol on soldiers shields Constantine converted to Christianity and made it legal in the Empire 1. Ended persecution of the Christians 2. Edict of Milan: legalized Christianity, freedom to follow religion they chose 3. Christianity later became the official state religion

7 Impact of Early Church As Roman Empire declined in West, the church in Rome grew in importance, membership, and influence The church became a source of moral authority Loyalty to the church became more important than loyalty to the Emperor The church became the main unifying force in Western Europe Council of Nicea Beginnings of organized religion of Christianity Transformed from faith into organized religion Beginning of the End for the Roman Empire All three sources of prosperity evaporated 1. Rome s treasuries from conquered territories spent on luxury goods 2. Bustling trade by Roman ships disrupted by pirates on Med. Sea 3. Grain to feed empire 1. Overworked soil lost fertility 2. Farmland destroyed by warfare 3. Higher taxes forces people off land Causes of decline of Western Roman Empire 1. Geographic size: difficulty of defense and administration 2. Economy Cost of defense & devaluation of Roman currency Minted coins with less silver: Led to inflation 3. Military Army membership started to include non-romans, resulting in decline in discipline Military spread too thin: empire too big to defend 4. Moral Decay: People s loss of faith in Rome and the family 5. Political Problems: civil conflict & weak administration Corruption Unstable government 6. Invasion: attack on borders (Barbarians)

8 Emperor Diocletian Works for Reform Changed empire 1. Doubled size of Roman armies 2. Set fixed prices for goods to combat inflation 3. Ordered farmers to stay on their land Believed empire had grown too large & complex for one ruler: divided into eastern and western half 1. Most invasions occurring on western half: focused on defending east 2. East: most of empire s great cities and trade centers 3. Slowed decline of empire Emperor Constantine Reunites Rome Moved capital from Rome to Byzantium, renaming it Constantinople 1. Easier to defend, not corrupt like Rome 2. Power shifted from Rome to east Constantinople (now Istanbul) served as headquarters of Byzantine Empire: Eastern Roman half After Constantine s death empire would divide again: eastern half would survive, west would fall End of the Roman Empire Rome s last emperor: 14 year old boy named Romulus Augustulus: overthrown by German general and sent into exile Western Roman Empire survived until 476 A.D. (C.E.) when it ceased to have a Roman Emperor Eastern Roman Empire: Byzantine Empire 1. Flourished 2. Ruled from Constantinople: saw themselves as heirs to power of Augustus Caesar: lasted until 1453 Contributions of Ancient Rome Art & Architecture Pantheon: built as Roman temple and later consecrated as a Catholic Church

9 Colosseum (see p. 182) Amphitheater in Rome once used for Gladiator combat Capable of seating 50,000 spectators Forum (also see p. 156) Political & economic center of Rome during the Republic Served as meeting place for Senate as well as a place where public meetings were held

10 Technology Roads: made it possible for the army to march from one place to another quickly Aqueducts (see p. 181) 1. Designed by Roman engineers to bring water into cities and towns 2. Emphasis on public health: public bath and water systems Roman arches 1. signature of Rome 2. Supported bridges and often used for the aqueducts to maintain a steady slope over hilly terrain Ptolemy Roman astronomer, mathematician, and geographer who developed the geocentric (earth centered) model of the solar system Literature Virgil s epic poem Aeneid tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan, who travelled to Italy where he became the ancestor of the Romans. Aeneas displayed the ideal characteristics of a Roman citizen. Medicine Emphasis on public health, public baths, public water system and medical schools Many Romans visited baths to socialize or for cleanliness Many Romans believed diseases were brought on by disfavor of gods Military doctors learned on battlefield, then would teach in medical schools Language Spoke Latin Romance languages: Languages descended from Latin: French, Spanish, Italian Law Earliest known attempt by Romans to create a code of law was the Twelve Tables The principle Innocent until proven guilty (Twelve Tables) Equal treatment under the law

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