II. Phoenicians - Carriers of Civilization

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1 II. Phoenicians - Carriers of Civilization A. Phoenicians - Lived in the area of Palestine along the Mediterranean coast. They were seafarers. Bireme Ship

2 1. They built ships and became great international sea traders. Traded in the Mediterranean. Major colony: Carthage Traded as far as Britain.

3 2. Phoenicians developed an alphabet that is the basis of the western (Roman) alphabet today. They would pass on their alphabet to the Greeks, who gave it to the Etruscans, who gave it to the Romans. This is an example of cultural diffusion.

4 a) Cultural Diffusion - Exchange of ideas (beliefs, knowledge) between two different cultures. Happens through movement of people and/or trade.

5 III. Judaism Developed south of Phoenicia. The belief system of the Hebrews, Judaism, was and is a major world religion.

6 Who are the Jews?

7 . The basics - 1. Holy Book or Scripture Torah. This is known to Christians as the first five books of the Old Testament. There are also many interpretations, such as the Talmud. 2. Monotheistic - Jews believe in one god. The Jewish scriptures are written on scrolls

8 3. All Jews believe they are descendents of Abraham. 4. Jews believe that the Holy Land (Israel) was promised to them by God. Abraham s son, Isaac

9 B. History of Judaism-Their lifestyle was based on grazing animals rather than on farming. Drought forced the Israelites to move to Egypt, where they were enslaved.

10 1. Passover important Jewish holiday that commemorates the Exodus from Egypt a) Exodus - Moses went to the Pharaoh to request the release of Jews. Each time the pharaoh refused, a plague was unleashed. The last plague was the death of the first born. God told Moses to mark Jewish doors with lamb s blood, so He could pass over the houses and spare the Hebrew firstborn (Hence, the name Passover).

11 b) Moses parted the Red Sea. Pharaoh s troops were swept away by the Red Sea.

12 2. Moses led them through Sinai Desert. At Mount Sinai, God made a covenant with Jews. Moses received Ten Commandments an ethical code list of rules

13 The Ten Commandments And God spake all these words, saying, I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. 1.Thou shalt have no other gods before me. 2.Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. 3.Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain 4.Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. 5.Honour thy father and thy mother: 6.Thou shalt not kill. 7.Thou shalt not commit adultery. 8.Thou shalt not steal. 9.Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. 10.Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour s house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour s.

14 Rosh Hoshana (New Year) Yom Kippur - holiest day of the year Jews fast for 25 hours They ask for forgiveness of sins in prayers and worship Youtube video of shofar service

15 3. The Temple - Built during King Solomon s reign in Jerusalem the Holy City of Judaism. Babylonians destroyed it; it was rebuilt and destroyed again Jews now worship in synagogues

16 4. The Diaspora a) The Diaspora began after the destruction of the temple. Many Jews were sent as captives to Babylonia. 1) Diaspora - Dispersion of Jews living outside of Israel

17 Judaism Holy Book? How many gods do they believe in? 5 core beliefs Where did Judaism originate? Important people associated with Judaism 4. 5.

18 Place the following events on a timeline in your notebook Ca. 900 B.C. Phoenicia sets up a trading empire 2050 B.C. Middle Kingdom in Egypt established 1300 B.C. Jewish Exodus 814 B.C. Carthage established by Phoenicians 586 B.C. Solomon s Temple in Jerusalem destroyed 1324 B.C. King Tut dies B.C. Period of Old Kingdom in Egypt

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