Sunday, September 8, 13. Early Jewish History

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1 Early Jewish History

2 Early history of the Jewish people took place in what is now the state of Israel

3

4 Another name for the Jewish people is called Hebrews. Migrated to Canaan between 2100 and 1500 BC Ancestors lived in Mesopotamia (present day Iraq)

5 Mesopotamia Located between two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. Means land between the rivers

6 Abraham Patriarch (head of family and tribe) Settled disputes and punished lawbreakers. Officiated at religious ceremonies. Led tribe into wars with other tribes. Decided where the tribe would live. Moved the tribe from Mesopotamia to Haran.

7 Ur Abraham moved his family from Ur to Haran. (600 miles away)

8 Haran Ancient City which is now a part of southeast Turkey

9 Covenant with God Abraham was 75 years old God agreed to give Abraham s descendants the land of Canaan as their home if they carried out God s will. Serve God and Obey Him God s Chosen People Abraham took his people to Canaan

10 Canaan 81 miles wide at its broadest point and it measured about 150 miles.

11 Two Intriguing Stories Abraham as a child Father, Terah - idol merchant Abraham saw idol worship as waste of time. (believed in one god) Smashed all his father s idols

12

13 God ordered Abraham to sacrifice his son, Isaac. Human sacrifice was common God was testing Abraham s faith Location: Mount Moriah sacrificial lamb God stopped him from sacrificing his son Sacrificed ram instead

14

15 Moses Hebrews were forced to leave Canaan because of famine. Settled in Egypt Forced into slavery after 400 years Moses was the second great leader of the ancient Hebrews

16

17 Moses s story is told in: Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy Pentateuch: five books Includes books above and Genesis Moses was born in Egypt in the 13th century BC Pharaoh ordered all Hebrew sons killed Mother (Yocheved) put Moses in a basket near the Nile River Raised by the daughter of the Pharaoh

18

19 Moses Killed an Egyptian official because he was beating a Hebrew. Moved to Midian, married and had two children God - burning bush Lead Hebrews out of Egypt (captivity) Asked Pharaoh to free the Israelites and to let them leave for Canaan Ten plagues were sent to punish Egypt

20 Midian

21 Burning Bush

22 Ten Plagues

23 Tenth plague - Angel of Death went to each Egyptian home and took the life of the first-born child. Passed over the houses of the Israelites and did not harm their first-born children (Passover) or Pesach Name refers to the Exodus (passing over the Israelites from slavery to freedom) Pharaoh agreed to let the Israelites go. (Hebrews)

24

25 The Exodus Pharaoh changed his mind and sent soldiers after the Israelites Moses parted the Red Sea Flight of the Israelites from Egypt is called the Exodus. a going out Exodus lasted for 40 days

26

27 After three months reached foot of Mount Sinai God gave Moses the Ten Commandments Moses was away for 40 days and the Israelites started worshiping idols (golden calf) God condemned them to wander in the wilderness for 40 years.

28

29 Three Kings, Followed by Two Kingdoms

30 Arrived in Canaan around 1200 BC Judges ruled from 1200 BC BC Judges each ruled over 12 tribes 1020 BC - Period of Judges ended and Kingdom of Israel was formed Saul became the first King

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32 Ruled for 20 years Fought against the Ammonites, Moabites and Philistines 1000 BC killed himself after losing to the Philistines. (fell on his sword) David was selected to be the next King

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34 David established Jerusalem as the capital of his kingdom. Ruled from 1000 BC to 961 BC Son, Solomon became King Built the great Temple of Jerusalem Roads, fortresses, and other structures Great wisdom

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36 Solomon Extravagant use of taxpayers money Harem of 1000 wives and concubines Expansive stables for his horse Died in 922 BC Israel was ready for revolt

37 Israelites split into two kingdoms Kingdom of Israel in the north Kingdom of Judah in the south Neither kingdom was strong enough to win against outsiders.

38

39 Conquest and Capacity Assyrians, Chaldeans, and the Persians all threatened the two kingdoms 722 BC - Israel was overrun by the Assyrians Period is known as the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel Captivity and Slavery

40

41 586 BC - Kingdom of Judah feel to the Chaldeans Chaldeans capital was at Babylon People were forced into slavery Chaldeans eventually conquered by the Persians Romans eventually conquered the area in the first century BC

42

43

44

45 The Jewish people will remain scattered throughout the world until the formation of Israel in 1948.

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