WHI SOL Review Packet: Part II

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1 Ancient Rome from 700 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.) 120. What geographical features protected Rome and the Italian peninsula? 121. What was Roman Mythology based on? What did it explain? 122. Who were the major gods and goddesses in Roman mythology and what were they gods of? 123. What was the early form of government in Rome (after the Etruscan kings were deposed)? 124. Who were the Patricians? 125. Who were the Plebeians? 126. Patricians and Plebeians (plus some foreigners) were given citizenship in return for what? 127. What were the three major governing bodies during the existence of the Roman Republic? What did they do, or what were they responsible for? 128. Roman law was codifed and called what? 129. What city in North Africa came into conflict with Rome over control of trade? What were the series of wars known as? 130. Who was Hannibal and why was he important? 131. Who won the Punic Wars and what happened to Carthage as a result? to Rome? 132. What four things caused the decline of the Roman Republic? 133. Who was Julius Caesar and why was he important? 134. Who was Augustus Caesar and why was he important? 1

2 135. What was the Pax Romana? 136. What was the economic impact of the Pax Romana? 137. What was the social impact of the Pax Romana? 138. What was the political impact of the Pax Romana? 139. Who began the teachings that eventually evolved into Christianity? 140. How did Christians come to view Jesus? 141. How did Christian beliefs conflict with Roman Mythology? 142. What are the characteristics, beliefs, and traditions of Christianity? 143. What is the New Testament and why is it important? 144. Who were the Apostles, and why is Paul important? 145. Who converted to and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire? 146. Under Theodosius, what did Christianity later become to the Roman Empire? 147. What became the main unifying force in Western Europe? 148. Describe the architectural achievements of the Pantheon, Colosseum, and the Forum Why were Roman roads and aqueducts important? 150. Who was Ptolemy and why was he important? 2

3 151. How did advancements in Roman medicine demonstrate an emphasis on public health? 152. What was the official language of the Roman Empire? It eventually transformed into what? 153. Who is Virgil and why was he important? 154. What major principle was passed down to us from Roman law? 155. What six factors caused the decline of the Roman Empire? Byzantine Empire and Russia from 300 to 1000 A.D. (C.E.) 156. Who moved the capital of the Empire from Rome to Byzantium? What did he rename the city? 157. The Western half of the Roman Empire finally collapsed in what year? 158. The Eastern half of the Roman Empire continued to prosper by what name? 159. What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire? 160. Why was Constantinople s location important to the Byzantine Empire? 161. Who codified old Roman law for use by the Byzantine Empire? What was its name? 162. What were three important achievements of Emperor Justinian? 163. What is the name of religious images used by Greek Orthodox Christians in worship? 164. What was the name of the Byzantine domed church in Constantinople? What type of elaborate artwork did it feature inside? 165. How did Greek and Roman culture survive in the Byzantine Empire? 166. What were the key characteristics of the Eastern Christian Church (Greek Orthodoxy)? 3

4 167. What were the key characteristics of the Western Christian Church (Roman Catholicism)? 168. Why was there a division between the Eastern and Western branches of Christianity? 169. What led to interaction between Byzantines and the Slavs in Russia? 170. The Slavic oral languages were adapted to the Greek alphabet by who? What was it called? 171. Russians and other Eastern European people adopted what form of Christianity? Islamic Civilization from 600 to 1000 A.D. (C.E.) 172. Who founded Islam? 173. In what geographic region was Islam founded? What two key religious cities are there? 174. The Muslim empire spread through parts of what three continents? 175. What are the key characteristics, beliefs, and traditions of Islam? 176. Identify each of the Five Pillars of Islam What is the holy book of Islam? 178. How are Jesus, Moses, and Abraham viewed in Islam? 179. What factors allowed for the significant expansion of Islamic beliefs and Muslim rule? 180. What spread along with Islamic beliefs and Muslim rule? 181. After Ali s death, Islam was divided into what two branches? Which is more common today? 182. Aside from Mecca and Medina, what other cities became important to the Muslim Empire? 4

5 183. What happened at the Battle of Tours and why was it important? 184. What people defeated the Abbasids and conquered Baghdad? 185. What famous Muslim architectural achievement is in Jerusalem? What happened there? 186. Why were universities important to the Muslim Empire? What did they preserve? 187. What Mathematical achievements are attributed to the Muslim Empire? Europe during the Middle Ages from 500 to 1000 A.D.(C.E.) 188. What became the unifying force in Western Europe during the Middle Ages? Led by who? 189. Early Medieval society was founded on what three influences? 190. How did the Roman Catholic Church exercise influence during the Middle Ages? (4 ways) 191. When Western Europeans were left with little protection from invaders, they entered into what for protection? With who? 192. Describe feudal society during the Middle Ages. How did it work? 193. What was a medieval manor and how did it work? 194. What group of people did the Church establish an alliance with in order to expand their power and influence? 195. Who was anointed as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 800 AD? 196. What did Charlemagne build in order to unite the Holy Roman Empire? 197. What four groups invasions disrupted the social, economic, and political order of Europe? 198. Each of those invading groups moved from where to where? 5

6 The Eastern Hemisphere 199. What were the major trade routes in the Eastern Hemisphere from AD? 200. What trade goods facilitated connections between various cultures? 201. What technological advances allowed for an expansion of trade? 202. Buddhism spread from where to where during the Middle Ages? Hinduism? Islam? 203. What influences did geography have on the development of Japan? 204. How did proximity to China influence Japanese culture? 205. What two religious traditions coexisted in Japan? 206. What are the key beliefs and traditions of Shinto? 207. What were the key characteristics of Axum (East Africa)? 208. What were the important characteristics of Zimbabwe (Southern Africa)? 209. What were the characteristics of the West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai? Mayan, Aztec, and Incan Civilizations 210. What were the characteristics of Mayan civilization (Central America)? 211. What were the characteristics of Aztec civilization (present-day Mexico)? 212. What were the key characteristics of Incan Civilization (South America)? The Late Medieval Period 213. What were formed by European monarchies as they consolidated power? 6

7 214. Who led the Norman Conquest and united most of England? 215. English common law had its beginnings during the reign of who? 216. King John limited his power and the power of future kings when he signed what? When? 217. What lawmaking body in England had its beginnings during this time? 218. What conflict with France united England as a nation? 219. Who was Hugh Capet and why was he important? 220. Who was Joan of Arc and why was he important? 221. Who were Ferdinand and Isabella and why were they important? 222. Who was Charles V and why was he important? 223. Who was Ivan the Great and why was he important? 224. Power in Russia was centralized in the hands of what leader? 225. What were the Crusades and why were they carried out? 226. What were the five key events of the Crusades? 227. What were the four major effects of the Crusades? 228. Who were the Mongols, and to where did they extend their empire? 229. What group invaded and conquered the Byzantine Empire? 230. What decimated the population of much of Asia and then Europe during the 14 th Century? 7

8 231. What was the impact of the Black Death on economic and social institutions? (five) 232. Education was largely confined to what group during the Middle Ages? Therefore they were largely responsible for preserving what? 233. How did Church scholars interpret and value ancient learning? (five) 234. What were the three economic effects of the Crusades? The Renaissance 235. What were the three economic concepts of the Renaissance? 236. What were the three benefits to the geographic location of the Northern Italian city-states of Florence, Venice, and Genoa? 237. Who is Machiavelli and why was he important? 238. What are the major ideas concerning power expressed in The Prince? 239. What was the name given to people who sponsored works that glorified city-states in Northern Italy? 240. Medieval art and literature focused on what? 241. Renaissance art and literature focused on what? 242. Who was Leonardo da Vinci, and for what was he famous? 243. Who was Michelangelo and for what was he famous? 244. Who was Petrarch and for what was he famous? 245. What is humanism, and why was it important to the Renaissance? 8

9 246. What three factors explain how the values and ideas of the Italian Renaissance spread to Northern Europe? 247. What did Northern Renaissance thinkers merge with humanist ideas? 248. What invention and events helped disseminate ideas? 249. Who was Erasmus and why was he important? 250. Who was Sir Thomas More and why was he important? 9

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