Warmup. Islam is a monotheistic religion. What does monotheistic mean? Belief in one god

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1 ISLAM

2 Warmup Islam is a monotheistic religion. What does monotheistic mean? Belief in one god

3 Agenda Warmup Islam PPT & Notes Venn Diagram Islam, Christianity, Judaism

4 Pre-Islamic Arabia Pre-Islamic Arabia

5 The Qur an

6 History of Islam This is a map of what political/ethnic/geographic region? The Middle East

7 Religious History Abraham (father of the Jews) had a wife Sarah who couldn t have a child She let him sleep with Hagar, a servant Hagar became pregnant with Ishmael Sarah cast out Hagar out of jealousy Hagar and Ishmael wandered the desert until they came to an oasis (some say God gave them the water) in Mecca Abraham and Ishmael constructed the Ka aba

8 Pre-Islam Between the fall of Rome and the rise of the Middle Ages in Europe, Arabia was polytheistic Judaism and Christianity flourished in the Middle East Tribal warfare between nomadic tribes General peace and tolerance within the big cities The Ka aba

9 Mecca

10 Pre-Islam The Ka aba is a shrine in Mecca that used to hold hundreds of tribal idols Gods and goddesses of nature and natural phenomenon Patron deities of tribes

11 Muhammad Born in 570 in Mecca to the Quraysh tribe Lived with nomadic tribes (tradition) Orphaned as a child Went to live with his uncle

12 Muhammad Became a camel driver, caravan trader, & merchant Married a wealthy businesswoman and widow named Khadijah in 595 He was 25 and she was 40 They were married for 25 years until her death Married 13 different times in total throughout his life

13 Muhammad He prayed in the desert near Mecca for a few weeks every year In 610, the angel Gabriel appeared to him Commanded him to recite verses that would later appear in the Quran Told Muhammad to proclaim Allah to the Arab people

14 The entrance to the cave in the mountain Jabal al-nour where Muhammad is believed to have received his first revelation

15 Muhammad He taught that Allah is the one true God Islam = submission to the will of Allah Muslim = one who has submitted

16 Crossroads and Trade Started preaching in Mecca in 613 AD Pilgrims had already been coming to worship at the Ka aba Now came to worship Allah Many in Mecca thought Muhammad would end the pilgrimages to the Ka aba Cannot worship multiple gods along with the One God He condemned idol worship

17 Muhammad His teachings upset merchants Livelihoods depended on trade around the Ka aba Fearing for his life, he left Mecca in 622 and went to Medina Hijrah flight Hijrah was important because he later became a religious, political, and military leader Saw multiple visions throughout his life (Gabriel, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Heaven, Hell, etc.) *Medina The City of the Prophet *Second holiest city in Islam

18 Muhammad Returned to Mecca in 629 and captured the city with 10,000 followers They destroyed idols at the Ka aba Called to prayer from the roof of the Ka aba

19 Muhammad After he conquered Mecca, he went on his first truly Islamic pilgrimage to teach his followers Called the Hajj Asked for his followers to abandon their tribal warfare and to make one community under Allah

20 Muhammad He died 2 years later in 632 at the age of 62 He had converted hundreds of thousands of people along the Arabian Peninsula

21 Mausoleum in Medina Muhammad was buried in Medina in his second wife s house The Mosque of the Prophet was built later and expanded over that burial site The Green Dome was added above the tomb later on Popular pilgrimage site

22 Islam Arabic culture was mostly oral The Qu ran/koran is the holy book Written in Arabic calligraphy Covers secular and religious law It was compiled after Muhammad s death Mosque Islamic house of worship

23 Qur an

24

25 The Five Pillars of Faith 1) Faith Shahadah There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His Prophet

26 The Five Pillars of Faith 2) Prayer Salat 5 times a day facing towards Mecca

27 The Five Pillars of Faith 3) Alms-giving - Zakat Charity to the poor Like a religious tax

28 The Five Pillars of Faith 4) Fasting Sawm No food, drink, smoking, or sex from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan May 26 th, 2017 June 25 th, 2017 Pregnant women, the elderly, the sick, & small children may abstain from fasting Commemorates the First Revelation to Muhammad

29 The Five Pillars of Faith 5) Pilgrimage - Hajj Pilgrimage at least once in a lifetime to Mecca Dress in white to all be equal under Allah

30 Islamic Way of Life The Five Pillars of Faith help focus on Allah and Muhammad instead of worldly matters

31 Islamic Way of Life Sunna the model for proper living Comes from the example set by Muhammad Followed in particular by Sunni Muslims

32 Islamic Way of Life Shariah Law regulates family life, moral conduct, business & community life Comes from the Qur an and the Sunna Shariah Law is practiced in Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Iran, Iraq, Afghani stan, Pakistan, Brunei, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen and Maur itania.

33 Links to Judaism and Christianity Allah is the same God worshipped by Jews and Christians Jesus was an important prophet

34 Links to Judaism and Christianity All three believe in Heaven, Hell, & Judgment Day Sharia Law requires tolerance of Jews and Christians All three religions follow a general (or specific) code of behavior

35 Links to Judaism and Christianity Islamic differences: Jesus was not the son of God Mohammad was the last and most important prophet The Qur an is a completion of both the Torah and the Bible

36 Links to Judaism and Christianity Jews and Christians are called The People of the Book to Muslims

37 Picking Muhammad s Successor Problem: Muhammad died in 632 and never named a successor Wanted to spread Islam to the rest of the world, but did not have a leader

38 Arabian Peninsula

39 Picking Muhammad s Successor Key Players: Rightly-Guided Caliphs Refers to the 30-year reign of the first 4 caliphs after Muhammad died Used Qu ran and Muhammad s example as a guide to good leadership Spread Islam through diplomacy and military force Did not force conquered peoples to convert to Islam (religious toleration), instead used restrictions and taxes Because Jews and Christians believed in the same God as Muslims, they were permitted to live in self governing communities and had to pay a special tax

40 Picking Muhammad s Successor Key Players: Ummayads Came to power after last two Rightly Guided Caliphs were assassinated Moved capital from Mecca to Damascus to make it easier to govern conquered territories Abandoned Muhammad s example of a simple life and instead surrounded themselves with wealth

41 Picking Muhammad s Successor Key Players: Abbasids Overthrew Ummayads & murdered any remaining members of family Moved capital to Baghdad in Iraq because it was on a key trade route Controlled empire through a bureaucracy Taxed land, imports, exports, & non-muslim wealth

42 Picking Muhammad s Successor Key Events: Ummayads Moved capital to Damascus and lived a life of wealth and ceremony Led to split in Muslim Community

43 Picking Muhammad s Successor Key Events: Split of Islam Shiites Caliph should be related to Muhammad (did not get along with Ummayads) Sunni Caliph should be a follower of Muhammad s example Sufi led life of poverty and devotion, believed Ummayads were too luxurious

44 Picking Muhammad s Successor Key Events: Abbasids Had trouble maintaining power over huge empire Remained united in religion, trade, and language

45 Picking Muhammad s Successor Outcome: Islam spread from a small part of the Arabian peninsula when Muhammad died to major areas in Africa, Europe, and Asia Arabs spread Islam through: Sufi missionaries Conquest Trade

46 Picking Muhammad s Successor Outcome: Growth of Trade Able to trade on Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean Linked to China, India, and Europe on the Silk Road Muslim merchants only needed one language (Arabic) and one currency (Dinar) to trade from China to Europe Muslims invented the sakk (check)

47 Picking Muhammad s Successor Today Leadership of the Islamic party is still a divisive issue in the Middle East Sunni and Shitte Muslims still exist today and fight for control of Muslims across the world

48 Venn Diagram With a partner, fill out the Venn Diagram with the similarities and differences between Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. If you do not know much about their similarities and/or differences, Google it!

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