Islam. Islam-Its Origins. The Qur an. The Qur an. A.D. 570 Muhammad was born

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1 Islam Islam is Arabic for surrender, or submission. Its full connotation is the peace that comes from surrendering one s life to God. Muslim means one who submits. 20% of the world s population Indonesia-88% population is Muslim, Pakistan-97%, Bangladesh-85%, India-11% The Qur an revelations about the nature of Allah and his rule and judgment revelations dealing with doctrines, many of which are taken directly out of the Pentateuch revelations dealing with government and ethics. Islam-Its Origins A.D. 570 Muhammad was born His tribe, the Quraysh, controlled the important city of Mecca which contained the Ka bah Over a period of 22 years, Muhammad received a series of revelations from the angel Gabriel which were compiled into the Qur an, which means recitations. The Qur an Islam has a threefold system-religious, political and cultural. Muslims believe that the Qur an was with Allah forever, before being revealed. The true Qur an is the Arabic Qur an. The sound is what is important, Allah s speech. It cannot be translated, though paraphrases can be used as a kind of commentary.

2 Islam-its Origins In 622 Muhammed moved to Medina and took up leadership, it is from this year that Muslims start their calendar. In 624 he defeated the Quraysh and in 630 he entered Mecca to become its leader. In one year he unified all the tribes of the Arabian peninsula under the religion of Islam. He died in 632. Islam Sunnis emphasise the authority of the written traditions, including the Qur an. The Hadith is a collection of stories and sayings of Muhammad and his followers. The Sunnah depicts events from the life of Muhammad, gives examples for ethics and living. Sunnis also follow guidance from religious scholars and elders. Islam-its Origins Before the end of the century Armenia, Persia, Syria, Palestine, Iraq, N. Africa and Spain had been conquered by Muslims. Struggle for leadership after Muhammad died. Sunni believed that his successor should be elected. Shi ite believed his successor should follow blood-lines. The Sunnis won, and today make up 80%. Islam Shi ites are more authority oriented. Imam-God s representative, 12th Imam became hidden in the 9th century. Source of authority passed to the elders, who are representatives of the hidden Imam. They are looking for the return of the 12th Imam. Sufism is the mystical wing of Islam-goal is to merge self with Allah.

3 The Five Pillars of Islam The Five Pillars of Islam First Pillar is the shahadah- There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is His Prophet. Second Pillar is prayer: on rising, sun overhead, mid-afternoon, sunset, before bed. Pray facing Mecca. Fourth Pillar: the observance of Ramadan. The holy month of fasting from sunrise to sunset. Fifth Pillar: pilgrimage to Mecca-Hajj Third Pillar: charity. 2.5% of finances should be given to the poor. Jihad the duty to struggle on behalf of the faith, and to fight in order to expand the area in which the faith is dominant. The Qur an and the Hadith state that the infidel must be converted or conquered. Those who give their lives for this cause receive eternal forgiveness and go to the highest level of paradise. Jihad In Islamic law Jihad is valid when declared by the leading Muslim scholar in a recognised state. Sayyid Qutb ( ): the leading ideologist of the modern Islamist movement. Taught that the present condition of Islam is one of Jahiliya, or ignorance. He argued for principles that would justify armed attacks to restore back to a state of true Islam.

4 The Six Beliefs Allah-God is one, there are 99 Most Beautiful Names. Angels-Four archangels, ordinary angels, beings between angels and people called jinnsome good, some evil, some neutral. The Books: Scrolls of Abraham (now lost) Torah, Psalms, Gospel, Qur an, Hadithtraditions The Six Beliefs The Six Beliefs Prophetic Messengers: Adam-the first man, Abraham-the first Muslim, Moses-the lawgiver, Jesus-the Word of God, Muhamad-the last and greatest. The Judgement: Good and bad deeds are weighed and determine whether you go to Paradise or Hell 1400 years of struggle between Islam and Christianity. Allah s Decrees: Allah predestines everything, both good and evil. Fatalism is strong because of this 691: the Dome of the Rock was built on the Jewish Temple Mount in Jerusalem. 715: the Great Mosque of Damascus replaced the Cathedral Church of St. John. 732: Battle of Tours halted the progress of Islam across Europe.

5 Capital moves from Damascus to Baghdad. Internal expansion of theology, law and science. For three centuries no geographical expansion. Pope Leo IV (847-55), John VIII (872-82) and other popes planted the idea of holy war into Western Christian thinking , Islam increased in strength under the Turkish Ottoman empire. Renamed Constantinople Istanbul. From the 17th-20th centuries, Russia and Turkey fought. As a result of WWI, the Ottoman Empire was broken up. In 1923 at the Conference of Lusanne the modern borders were drawn up. Pope Urban II ( ) gave the battle cry of God wills it! The Western Church had seen the withdrawal of Eastern Christians in A crusade to reclaim much of the eastern land might help to reunite Rome and Constantinople. Crusades lasted from Jesus According to the Qur an Jesus name appears 25 times in the Qur an A prophet to the Jews Jesus was a man who pointed to Allah Jesus did not die on a cross but was taken up to Allah and he will return

6 Christianity Through the Eyes of a Muslim A Christian Response Historical Evidence affirms Christianity Christianity has been changed Christians and Muslims are both divided Christians are divided and weak Christians have maligned true Islam Christians are blind and unreasonable Islam maligns Christianity far more than Christians malign Islam Christian faith is reasonable and can be understood The Christian faith overlooks immorality Western nations are not Christian nations Witnessing to Muslims Understanding the culture is essential Building bridges of friendship before presenting the gospel Realising what it may mean for a Muslim to become a Christian Sharing clearly without using jargon Witnessing to Muslims Showing interest in the Qur an and what it says Showing how the Bible gives evidence within itself that it is wholly trustworthy. Matt. 5:17,18; 2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Peter 1:20,21 in The Call of the Minaret Kenneth Cragg says what is needed is a restoration to Muslims of the Christ Whom they have missed.

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