Abraham s Genealogy. Judaism-Torah. Islam-Quran Muhammad (the last prophet) Quran and the Five Pillars of Islam.

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1 Abraham s Genealogy HAGAR Islam-Quran ABRAHAM Judaism-Torah SARAH Ishmael Isaac 12 Arabian Tribes Jacob/Israel Esau Muhammad (the last prophet) Quran and the Five Pillars of Islam Mecca (Muslims) 12 Tribes of Israel 2 Tribes - (Jews) of Judah Jesus Christ (son of God) The Hebrew Bible - Old Testament in the Christian Bible Other 10 tribes- (Israelites) (Hebrews)

2 1. Origins of Islam According to Islamic teachings, Hagar and her son Ishmael were alone in the Arabian desert, safe from Abrahams other wife Sarah. In need of water she prayed to God and he brought forth a spring of water. Over the centuries, the water continued to flow and people came from far to drink from the well and to visit the stone monument, the Kaaba

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5 Islam An Abrahamic Religion Muslims are strict monotheists. They believe in the Judeo- Christian God, which they call Allah. Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Qur an, is the word of God. Peoples of the Book

6 The Prophetic Tradition Muhammad Jesus Moses Abraham Noah Adam

7 The Quran: God s Last testament Muslims believe that the sacred texts of Judaism and Christianity also come from Allahbut that the Quran carries the greatest authority because it represents God s final message to humanity.

8 The Origins of the Qur an Muhammad received his first revelation from the angel Gabriel in the Cave of Hira in 610. Muhammad was instructed that there is only one God, Allah,and other messages included how people should worship Allah 622 Hijrah Muhammed flees Mecca for Medina. * The beginning of the Muslim calendar (1) Muhammad and believers faith of Islam-achieving peace through submission to God (Muslims)

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10 The Qur an Muhammad s revelations were compiled into the Qur an after his death. Muslims believe it contains the word of God. 114 suras (chapters). In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful. Written in Arabic, the sacred text of Islam

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12 The Shahada The testimony. The declaration of faith: There is no god worthy of worship except God [Allah], and Muhammad is His Messenger [or Prophet]. 1

13 2. The Salat The mandatory prayers performed 5 times a day: * dawn * noon * late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed 2 Wash before praying. Face Mecca and use a prayer rug.

14 The Salat The call to prayer by the muezzin in the minaret. Pray in the mosque on Friday. 2

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16 3. The Zakat Almsgiving (charitable donations). Muslims believe that all things belong to God. Zakat means both purification and growth. About 2.5% of your income. 3

17 4. The Sawm Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. Considered a method of self-purification. No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan. 4

18 Eid Mubarak End of the Ramadan holiday.

19 The Hajj The pilgrimage to Mecca. Must be done at least once in a Muslim s lifetime. 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year. 5

20 5. The Hajj Those who complete the pilgrimage can add the title hajji to their name. 5

21 The Dar al-islam The World of Islam

22 The Mosque The Muslim place of worship

23 The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem Mount Moriah Rock where Muhammad ascended into heaven.

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25 Other Islamic Religious Practices Up to four wives allowed at once. No alcohol or pork. No gambling. Sharia body of Islamic law to regulate daily living. Three holiest cities in Islam: * Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem.

26 2. The Spread of Islam Easy to learn and practice. No priesthood. Teaches equality. Non-Muslims, who were Peoples of the Book, were allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes. Easily portable nomads & trade routes Jihad ( Holy War ) against pagans and other non-believers ( infidels ).Struggle for faith

27 Islam after Muhammad Umar Abu Bakr - close friend to Muhammad was chosen Caliphs - successors and teachers of Muhammad Under Abu Bakr and his successor, Umar the civilization became an empire Abu Bakr

28 Internal Conflict and Division Deep conflict within the Muslim leadership another caliph must be chosen Some supported Ali, cousin of Muhammadblood line Ali lost to Uthman, leader of Umayyad, a powerful bedouin tribe, who became caliph Rebels killed Uthman, and Ali became caliph, but he was eventually killed and the Umayyad took power - Caliph Mu awiya Ali Both Assassinated

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30 Sunni-Shia Divide Sunnis - followers of Umayyad way of the Prophet - caliph - Mu awiya no one stands between the individual leader and the Shah Shia - followers of Ali - Muhammad s true heir Imans - interpreters of the Quran A third group - Sufismystical, personal connection with God Mu awiya Ali

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32 Martyrdom of Husayn Conflict between the Sunni and Shia Muhammad s grandson, Husayn, -Shia and Yazid - Sunni met in battle and Husayn was shot with arrows while holding his infant son led to hatred between the two- Shia interprets Jihad as violent fight for faith

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34 Sunni and Umayyad Dynasty Under Umayyad caliphs, Muslim rule spread Internal problems eventually led to their downfall fell to Abbasids - direct descendant of Muhammad s uncle Shia united under Abbasids - return to Islamic values

35 Shia and the Abbasid Dynasty Capital - Baghdad - Tigris River in Iraq Move marked the beginning of Arab domination of the Muslim world Most prominent Caliph was Harun al-rashid - attracted many merchants, poets, scholars, and artists In the end, challenges from Europe, Egypt, Turkey, and Asia, let to disunity Harun al-rashid

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38 3. Society and Culture

39 Countries with the Largest Muslim Population 1. Indonesia 183,000, Iran 62,000, Pakistan 134,000, Egypt 59,000, India 121,000, Nigeria 53,000, Bangladesh 114,000, Algeria 31,000, Turkey 66,000, Morocco 29,000,000 * Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of the world. What other countries have a large population of Muslim?

40 Muslims in America How many practicing Muslims in the United States? In what areas are there the most practicing Muslims?

41 Muslim Culture in NYC The Islamic Center, New York City

42 Where are most mosques located? Why do you suppose most were located there? What percentage of mosques were located in the suburbs?

43 What percentage of African Americans are Muslim? What ethnicity is the largest of Muslims? What do you suppose other represents?

44 What percentage of whites convert to Muslim? What ethnicity is the highest number of converts? Why do you suppose more African American are converts than whites?

45 In what years were the number of mosques founded below 20? What number of mosques were founded in the late 1960 s? Why do you suppose the number of mosques increased in the 1970 s?

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