The Origins of Islam. EQ: How could I compare and contrast the three major world religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam?

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1 The Origins of Islam EQ: How could I compare and contrast the three major world religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam?

2

3 Do you remember Sarah and Isaac? What about Hagar and Ishmael? Hagar and Ishmael are made to leave Abraham s family and they end up in the desert. Extremely thirsty, God hears the voice of a young boy, Ishmael. God sends an angel to speak to Hagar, and the angel tells her that Ishmael would become a great nation. Where have we heard that promise before?

4 Hagar picks up Ishmael and sees a well with water, which saves their lives. Ishmael grows up in the deserts of Southwest Asia and his descendents become the powerful Arabs. Islam claims Abraham and Ishmael built the House of God next to the well (Zamzam), which saved the life of Ishmael and his mother, Hagar. The original House of God was smaller compared to the newer 60-ft. cube-like stone structure there now.

5

6 Religious shrine in Mecca Most sacred site in Islam All Muslims around the world face the Kaaba when they pray, no matter where they are.

7 In 569 C.E., a man by the name of Abdullah marries a woman by the name of Aminah. Abd Allah leaves with a caravan to do some trading, when he falls ill and dies. Aminah happened to be with child when she learns of Abd Allah s fate. She hears a voice who tells her to name her child Muhammad. Aminah gives birth to Muhammad in 570 C.E. in the city of Mecca in present-day Saudi Arabia.

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9 Sons born to great Arab families were often sent to the desert to spend some of their childhood with Bedouin tribes for training or to avoid plagues in the cities. When he was small, two men in white appeared and laid Muhammad down, opened his chest, took out his heart, and took from it a black clot which they cast away. Then they washed his heart with snow. There was no mark on his chest, but a small oval mark on his back from birth. Years later, a Roman Catholic monk claimed it was the seal of prophethood.

10 Little is known about his childhood His parents died when he was young and he was raised by his uncle. He never learned to read or write. When he was 12, he visited Syria and had his first encounter with Jews and Christians. Developed a respect for those people he called People of the Book.

11 When he was 25, he married a wealthy widow named Khadijah. They had 2 sons, who died young, and four daughters. Most famous daughter was Fatimah, who marries Muhammad s successor, Ali. His wife Khadijah was involved in trade and got Muhammad involved,too.

12 610 C.E. ~ Muhammad was an Arab merchant known as Al-Amin, the trustworthy one. He was concerned about how rich merchants no longer helped the needy. He would go to the hills and caves to pray and meditate about the needy. While meditating in the Cave of Hira at the age of 40, Muhammad received a message from the angel Gabriel that he was the messenger of Allah. This began Muhammad s career as a prophet of Allah. He continued to receive messages, which he claimed came from Allah, until his death. Eventually, these messages were written down in the Qur an, the holy book of Islam.

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14 613 C.E. ~ Abraham, Moses, and Jesus were prophets, but Jews and Christians had misunderstood their teachings. Taught all people are members of a family. Help those who are less fortunate. Many of the poor accepted Muhammad s message because he called for social justice and equality. Powerful leaders and rich merchants rejected Muhammad and saw him as a threat to their economic security. Developed a code of behavior and revealed: The world would end one day God would judge humans mercifully if they surrendered to His will People should pray to show gratitude to God. The messages that Muhammad received from the angel Gabriel, form the basis of Islam. Islam means to submit to God

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16 People began to listen to his messages, so Mecca s rulers began to threaten to kill Muhammad. 622 C.E. ~ Hegira ~ Muhammad, along with a few hundred followers traveled from Mecca to the oasis town of Yathrib, where his father was buried. A vicious civil war was going on when he arrived and the leaders of the town invited Muhammad, who was well known for his wisdom, to act as a mediator. Yathrib becomes known as Medina, The Prophet s City. Muhammad stays for 6 years. Muhammad became a political and spiritual leader in Medina and Islam began.

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19 Muhammad s house was the first mosque, or a building for Muslim prayer. Eventually, all of the Arabian Peninsula, including Mecca, came to accept Muhammad and turned to Islam. March 632 C.E. ~ he returns to Mecca one last time for a pilgrimage and returns to Medina. June 8, 632 C.E. ~ Muhammad dies after a brief illness and was buried in the mosque in Medina.

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22 Considered by Muslims to be the last and most perfect prophet. 2 centuries after his death, the laws of Islam become known as Shariah law. The number of followers of Islam increased throughout the world.

23 Before 700 C.E. ~ Muhammad s followers began fighting over who would be his successor. This fight split Muslims into 2 groups: Shi a Sunni

24 Shiite ~ A Muslim who rejects the authority of the religious leaders who succeeded Muhammad s son-in-law Ali. The Imam (supreme leader) MUST be a blood relative of Muhammad. 10% of the Muslim population Tend to be more strict Religion of most Persians (ethnic group in Iran).

25 Muslim that accept the traditional teachings of the Koran and the authority of the descendants of Caliph Ali. They believe that the Caliph (leader of Islam) DOES NOT have to be a blood relative of Muhammad. 90% of the Muslim population Religion of most Kurds

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27 Islam changed from an Arab religion into a multicultural religion through the blending of cultures that occurred through trade and conquest. Islam spread so quickly after the death of Muhammad due to the Muslim armies who conquered empires that had weakened over the years.

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30 Known as Muslims 1.2 billion worldwide 1 in every 5 humans in the world is a Muslim. 2 nd largest religion in the world Fastest growing religion in Europe and America. Dominating religion of SW Asia

31 Abraham HAGAR ABRAHAM SARAH Ishmael Isaac 12 Arabian Tribes Jacob Esau 12 Tribes of Israel

32 Muhammad Considered the last and most perfect prophet

33 622 C.E. ~ Islam began after Muhammad s hegira to Medina. This is also the year the Muslim calendar began.

34 Mecca Medina Jerusalem

35 Allah

36 Koran or the Qur an Written in Arabic, uniting Muslims. Koran By Heart.

37 Mosque

38 A. MONOTHEISTIC: belief in one god. B. Afterlife earned through good works and deeds. C. Believe Allah created the entire world. D. Jesus, Moses were prophets E. Shariah: Islamic law based on Qur an

39 F. Practice the Five Pillars: 1. Declaration of faith 2. Daily Prayer 3. Fasting for Ramadan 4. Charity to the poor 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)

40 Friday

41 Caliph Imam

42 The crescent moon is a common symbol of Islam. Muslims believe that when Muhammad received his first revelation, the moon was in its last stage, appearing as a waning crescent.

43 Ramadan Celebrates the time when the Qur an was revealed to Muhammad 9 th month of Islamic calendar, lasting days. Islamic month of fasting during daylight hours. Prayer Reading of the Qur an Charity Iftar meal at sunset

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