Muslim Civilizations

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1 Muslim Civilizations

2 Muhammad the Prophet Born ca. 570 in Mecca Trading center; home of the Kaaba Marries Khadija At 40 he goes into the hills to meditate; God sends Gabriel with a call Khadija becomes first convert to Allah and Islam Muhammad s Call to Prophecy and First Revelation; 1425 from Heart, Afghanistan

3 622 Muhammad flees Mecca for Yathrib He s welcomed; people convert and become the first community Umma unites the clans In 630 Muhammad returns to Mecca; destroys the Kaaba 632 Muhammad dies The Hijra

4 Teachings of Islam Quran; Arabic Five Pillars; declaration, prayer, giving alms, fasting and Ramadan, the Hajj Mosques Jihad People of the Book

5 The Kaaba

6 Islamic Law Governs daily life; determines ethical behavior; influences family relations Extends rights and protection to women; spiritually equal In reality, different roles and rights Frieze of Mohammed, Supreme Court building

7 Building a Muslim Empire Early challenges; Muhammad dies without a successor Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph They make war on the Byzantines and Persians under the first four caliphs

8 Divisions Within Islam Shiites; believe Ali to be Muhammad s successor; Imams, divine religious leaders descended from Ali and Fatima Sunnis; no prophet after Mohammad; any good Muslim male could lead; caliph Abu Bakr (second from left)

9 The Umayyad Caliphate ; After Ali s death, the Umayyad caliphs rule Capital is Damascus Armies on horseback spread out to Egypt, Spain, Africa, into Byzantium and the Indus River Valley Great Mosque of Damascus

10 Muslim Success Other empires are weakened Common faith united them into a unified state Orderly system of administration Treat conquered people fairly Dome of the Rock; built by Abd al-malik ( )

11 A New Caliphate Conquests slow and economic tensions increase in 700s Shiites and non-arab Muslims support Abu al-abas; founds the Abbasid dynasty Capital moves to Baghdad Last Umayyad flees to Cordoba The Abbasid Palace in Baghdad, built in the 13th century. Courtesy of Saleh Iraq Home Page

12 Decline of the Muslim Empire The Abbasids never rule Spain By 850 their control of their empire begins falling apart In the 900s the Seljuk Turks enter the Middle East 1216 the Mongols swarm out of Central Asia Seljuk empire at the time of its greatest extent The Mongol Empire and its successor khanates

13 The Golden Age Muslim merchants create vast trade network; Silk Road Spreads products, technologies, knowledge, religions, diseases, money economies between East Asia and Europe The Silk Road extends from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India, and China.

14 Art and Architecture Baghdad, Cairo, Cordoba, Timbuktu are centers of learning Scholars translate Greek philosophers, Roman, Hindu, Buddhist texts Advances in Math and Medicine

15 Mongol and Muslim Empires

16 India s Muslim Empires 550 the Gupta Empire falls; Hindu and Buddhist rulers Trade networks link India, China, Middle East, Southeast Asia Arabs conquer Indus Valley in 711 Late 1100s the sultan of Ghur defeats the Hindus

17 Changes in Government and Muslim traditions of government Turks, Persians, Arabs migrate as office holders Trade between India and Muslim lands increases Arab scholars bring Greek and Persian learning to the area Society The Qutub Minaret is the world's tallest brick minarett at 72.5 metres.

18 Effects of Muslim Conquest Destruction of Buddhist temples weakens the religion in South Asia Hindus were killed or forced to convert The two religions faced off; eventually the sultans became more tolerant Hinduism accepted; rajahs 1398 Timur invaded India

19 1526 Mongols under Babur invade India again Sets up the Mughal Dynasty; Akbar, , greatest Mughal ruler High point of art and architecture under Shah Jahan The Mughals

20 The Ottoman and Safavid Empires 1300s the Ottomans, Turks from central Asia migrate into Asia Minor In 1453 they take Constantinople; rename it Istanbul Under Suleiman it reached from Hungary to Arabia to the Middle East and North Africa

21 Ottoman Culture Suleiman has absolute power, strengthens government Rules with grand vizier and council Society organized into classes After his death the empire begins a slow decline Selimiye mosque; Edirne

22 The Safavid Empire 1500s; Persia Shah Abbas the Great centralizes government; revives the glory of the old Persian Empire After his death pressure from the Ottomans leads to their decline The Bridge of 33 Arches

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