Chapter 4: The Spread of Islam

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1 Chapter 4: The Spread of Islam Objectives of this Unit: You will learn how Islam spread initially after Muhammad s death. You will learn how conquest and trade led to the spread of Islam, blending of cultures, and growth of cities. You will learn about three large Islamic empires that played a major role in the spread of Islam: the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires.

2 Key Terms: 4.1 Early Expansion Key Term Definition Ch 3 Review: Crossroad location Nomadic Sedentary Sunnah Shariah Caliph Abu Bakar Tolerance Muslim/Non Muslim treaties Umayyad Empire Berbers Moors Abbasid Empire

3 Key Term Crossroad Location Nomadic Sedentary Sunnah Shariah Ch 4 Section 1: Caliph Abu Bakar Tolerance Muslim/Non Muslim treaties Umayyad Empire Berbers Moors Definition Key Terms: 4.1 Early Expansion Arabia s location sits between Asia, Africa, and Europe made it a naturally successful location for traders to pass through Lifestyle of moving from place to place Lifestyle of staying in one location or settled A way of life or guidelines for Muslims to live by Islamic Law Quran and Sunnah help form this law The highest leader in Islam The first successor of Muhammad or caliph Acceptance When land was conquered by Muslims they made treaties (or deals) with the left over people (usually Jews and Christians) that listed rules for their behavior in return for the Muslims not attacking them. Many early caliphs came from this family. Moved Muslim capital from Medina to Damascus and expanded empire Native Northern Africans that converted to Islam Muslims that ruled parts of Spain

4 Chapter 4: Section 1 Early Expansion s Abu Bakar- Followed Muhammad as the next leader of Islam. He was the first caliph, the highest leader of Islam. Was a political and military leader, but NOT a religious leader. He united Arabia for the first time as a Muslim state in the 2 years he ruled. When Muslims conquered new lands, they made treaties or deals with the newly conquered people often Jews and Christians. These treaties monitored behaviors and provided safety. The most important factor in the spread of Islam was conquering non-muslims. Abu Bakar, Muhammad s successor And the 1st caliph. He led the Muslims on a series of wars that conquered many lands outside Arabia.

5 Early Caliphs Umayyad family ( ) Many of the early caliphs came from this family. Moved the Muslim capital from Medina to Demascus. Demascus is located on the Mediterranean Sea and this gave them the ability to control trade by sea in that area. They then conquered part of Northern Africa. These natives, Berbers, resisted the Muslims at first, but eventually converted to Islam and joined the Muslim armies to spread Islam. The Muslim and Berber armies conquered southern Spain easily. Next, they moved north to what is now France but were stopped by Christian armies in the city of Tours. Even though they lost this battle, Muslims called Moors - continued to rule parts of Spain for 700 years. Early Caliphs gather in the Great Mosque of Cordova, in Spain Abbasids ( s) Reorganized the government and made it easier to rule large areas

6 How did TRADE affect the spread of Islam, blend cultures and grow cities? Arabia s Crossroads Location gave Muslims easy access to Asia, Africa, and Europe. A. Spread of Islam 1. Merchants took Islamic beliefs to many new lands. To lands like: India, Africa, and Malaysia and Indonesia. 2. Trade also brought new products and money to Muslim lands. How to make paper and use gunpowder. How to plant new crops like cotton, rice, and oranges. Traders also made money on trade between regions B. Blending Cultures 1. As Muslims acquired new lands they came in contact with many different people with different beliefs and lifestyles. 2. Muslims practiced tolerance with those they conquered. 3. Many people conquered by the Arabs, converted to Islam. Those that didn t had to pay a special tax. These people shared their customs with the Arabs. 3. As Islam spread, Language and religion helped unify the many groups that became the Islamic world.

7 C. The Growth of Cities 1. As cities grew, their cultures (religions and languages) blended. 2. Trade brought people, products, and ideas together. 3. Baghdad a. Islamic capital 762 AD b. Trading and farming made it one of the richest cities in the late 700 s early 800 s. c. The center of Baghdad was known as the round city because three round walls surrounded it. d. Inside the walls was that caliph s palace

8 The Round city of Baghdad : Known at that time as The City of Peace

9 4. Cordoba, Spain a. Became the capital of Spain in 756. b. Farming and trade built the economy. They traded textiles and jewelry. c. Men and women came from many countries to study at the university there. d. Because it was such a major center for learning and trade, people from all religions settled here. e. It became a major center for Jewish culture. Cordoba, The City of the Great Mosque

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