Warm-Up: 10/2 Quotations from Holy Books

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1 Warm-Up: 10/2 Quotations from Holy Books Each statement below comes from a Holy Book. Indicate whether you think the source of each statement is: (A)the Old Testament; (B)the New Testament; (C)the Qur an. 1. O Children of Israel! Remember My favor wherewith I favored you and how I preferred you to all creatures. 2. And when the angels said: O Mary! Lo! God hath chosen thee and made thee pure, and hath preferred thee above all women of creation. 3. And when We did appoint Moses forty nights of solitude, and then ye chose the calf, when he had gone from you, and were wrongdoers. 4. One among them said: Kill not Joseph, but if ye must be dong, fling him into the depth of the pit. Some caravan will find him. 5. And remember when We deliver you from Pharaoh s folk, who were afflicting you with dreadful torment slaying your sons and sparing your women.

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3 Desert Life Arabian peninsula is the setting for the birth of Islam This area is comprised mostly of deserts; people are mostly nomadic The Bedouins were organized into clans that provided security & support from the desert They were known for their fighting abilities & would eventually form armies that would build a huge empire By 600s trade routes connected Arabia w/other empires

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5 Mecca The city of Mecca became an important stop on trade routes During certain holy months caravans stopped in Mecca to worship/rest Over time, Mecca became a sanctuary for knowledge & peace In this world was born a man named Muhammad

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7 Before Islam The religious center for Arab polytheists was a small temple called Ka aba in the city of Mecca Arabs made an annual journey to worship at the Ka aba

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9 The Ka aba Stone was a crystal white meteorite that fell to earth during Adam & Eve age It broke into several pieces and is held together by the silver litigator

10 Muhammad Orphaned at 6 & raised by his grandfather & uncle Didn t receive much schooling & began to work in the caravan trade for a woman several years older When Muhammad was 25 they married At 40, Muhammad heard the angel Gabriel tell him he was a messenger of God & he was to proclaim that there is only 1 God & you are to submit yourself before this God Muhammad believed the God who was speaking to him was Allah The belief that Allah is God is the basis of Islam & those who follow Islam are Muslim At first, Muhammad had little success w/his preaching as many believed Mecca would lose its position of worship & trade; Muhammad is kicked out of Mecca in 622 He heads to Yathrib (now Medina) w/ his followers & this migration becomes known as the al Hijrah

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12 HAGAR ABRAHAM SARAH Ishmael Isaac 12 Arabian Tribes Jacob Esau 12 Tribes of Israel

13 The Prophetic Tradition Adam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Muhammad

14 Links to Judaism & Christianity Allah is believed to be the same God that is worshipped in Christianity & Judaism Muslims view Jesus as a prophet, not the son of God All 3 believe in heaven, hell, & a day of judgment; trace their descendents to Abraham

15 Beliefs & practices of Islam Muslims are strict monotheists - Allah Holy book is the Qur an Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Qur an, is the word of God. (Peoples of the Book) To be a Muslim, you must carry out 5 duties that demonstrate submission to the will of God, Five Pillars of Islam

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17 1. The Shahada The testimony. The declaration of faith: There is no god worthy of worship except God, and Muhammad is His Messenger [or Prophet]. 1

18 2. The Salat The mandatory prayers performed 5 times a day: * dawn * noon * late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed 2 Wash before praying. Face Mecca and use a prayer rug.

19 2. The Salat The call to prayer by the muezzin in the minaret. Pray in the mosque on Friday. 2

20 3. The Zakat Almsgiving (charitable donations). Muslims believe that all things belong to God. Zakat means both purification and growth. 3 About 2.5% of your income.

21 4. The Sawm Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. Considered a method of selfpurification. No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan. 4

22 5. The Hajj The pilgrimage to Mecca. Must be done at least once in a Muslim s lifetime. 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year. 5

23 5. The Hajj Those who complete the pilgrimage can add the title hajji to their name. 5

24 The Mosque The Muslim place of worship.

25 The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem Mount Moriah Rock where Muhammad ascended into heaven.

26 Other Islamic Religious Practices Do not separate personal life from religious one Muslims believe that you speak directly to God w/ no interference No alcohol or pork. No gambling. Sharia body of Islamic law to regulate daily living. Three holiest cities in Islam: * Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem. After Muhammad s death, he left behind 2 major achievements: the formation of a religious community based on the Qu ran; interpretive guide for Muslims to follow The first 4 men to succeed Muhammad are known as caliphs These caliphs were chosen for life & were relatives to Muhammad 2 groups later form: Sunni & Shi ite Muslims

27 Easy to learn and practice. No priesthood. Teaches equality. The Spread of Islam Non-Muslims, who were Peoples of the Book, were allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes. Easily portable nomads & trade routes. Caliphs made progress w/ the spread of Islam because Military victories were seen as a sign of Allah s support for Islam People were willing to struggle & die to defend Islam Jihad ( Holy War ) against pagans and other non-believers ( infidels ).

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29 Essential Question: Why was Islam able to spread so quickly and convert so many to the new religion?

30 Muslims in the World Today

31 Countries with the Largest Muslim Population 1. Indonesia 183,000, Iran 62,000, Pakistan 134,000, Egypt 59,000, India 121,000, Nigeria 53,000, Bangladesh 114,000, Algeria 31,000, Turkey 66,000, Morocco 29,000,000 * Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of the world.

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33 Muslims in America

34 Muslim Culture in NYC The Islamic Center, New York City

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