THE RISE OF ISLAM U N I T I I I

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1 THE RISE OF ISLAM U N I T I I I

2 MUHAMMAD THE PROFIT From Mecca in modern day Saudi Arabia Muhammad was a middle aged merchant who claimed the Angel Gabriel asked him to recite the word of God As a Merchant Muhammad had exposure to the ideas of Judaism and Christianity Maybe even Persians

3 MUHAMMAD TAKES POLITICAL POWER Mecca was already a popular pilgrimage site Muhammad was kicked out because Islam threatened the pilgrimage Muhammad and his followers went to Medina Prayer switches from Jerusalem to Mecca Muhammad became a political and military leader 630 CE Muhammad takes back Mecca

4 THE SPREAD OF ISLAM Abu Bakr, Muhammad's successor began attacking the Byzantine Empire and recording the Qur'an A vast empire grew out of the principals of Islam in just 200 years Muhammad's successors relentlessly spread the religion through military conquest

5 THE RAPID SPREAD OF ISLAM

6 BASIC BELIEFS Conquered people do not have to convert, only pay a larger tax. Followers of Judaism and Christianity are specifically mentioned in the Qur an as people of the book Five Pillars of Islam 1. Shahadah- declaring there is no god except God (Allah), and Muhammad is God s messenger 2. Salat- Prayer five times a day 3. Zekat- Giving 2.5% of one s savings to the poor 4. Sawm- Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan 5. Hajj- Pilgrimage to Mecca

7 THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM

8 BASIC BELIEFS Guiding text: The Qur'an Absolute Monotheism Taking care of those less fortunate than you Hadiths; a collection of sayings and stories about the profit Muhammad A believer in Islam is part of the Uma or community of believers Islam becomes a restoration religion Muslims believe the Monotheisms before Muhammad had strayed from purity Muslims believe Mohamed was the last profit sent by God

9 SHIA- SUNNI SPLIT Caliph means successor Meaning Abu Bakr was a successor to the prophet Root of split goes back to Muhammad's first successor Abu Bakr, Muhammad's father in law became the first Caliph Many wanted his son in law, Ali to take over Shia Muslims believe the Caliph should be a descendent of Muhammad

10 MODERN SHIA- SUNNI DIVIDE Today Shia Muslims make up 16% of the Islamic population

11 THE ISLAMIC SPLIT HAS SERIOUS RAMIFICATIONS TODAY

12 BAGDAD: THE CENTER OF LEARNING The Abbasid Caliphate ( CE) became the center for learning The Persian ruling class moved the capital to Baghdad Baghdad becomes the center of learning Large library held the work of Greek philosophers, Greek scientist, and Buddhist and Hindu text Openness to foreigners and their ideas Possibly largest blending of cultures since Hellenistic times Brought to an end by the Mongols

13 IBN SINA ( CE) Often known by Latin name Avicenna Gained great advances in the field of medicine Created the Canon of Medicine Became the standard medical text book for centuries

14 HOW S THIS FOR A VACATION?

15 IBN BATTUTA ( CE) Moroccan explorer Traveled the known Muslim world Recorded his travels in the Rihla (translated to Journey ) Helped link Africa to the Islamic World The most well traveled man to date

16 THE ABRAHAMIC TRADITIONS Judaism est. around 1000 BCE Christianity est. around 40 CE Islam est. around 600 CE

17 WHAT DO THE ABRAHAMIC RELIGIONS ALL HAVE IN COMMON? All three use a religious text that provide guidelines ethical and moral behaviors as well as how to govern believers Judaism- Torah Christians- The Bible Islam- The Qur'an All three recognize Abraham, Mosses and other figures from the old testament as important religious figures All three believe in fundamental monotheism All three originated in the same region, and claim several of the same cities as religious holy sites

18 JERUSALEM

19 FUNDAMENTAL DIFFERENCES IN THE ABRAHAMIC RELIGIONS Judaism Judaism does not actively seek converts and the religion is associated with a group of people Christianity Christians believe Jesus was the son of God (or Messiah) Catholic leaders must remain unmarried Islam Islam is the newest and only Abrahamic tradition to reference the other two in the holy text

20 MODERN DISTRIBUTION

21 OVER HALF THE WORLD PRACTICES AN ABRAHAMIC RELIGION

22 ANCIENT AFRICA U N I T I I I

23 AFRICAN RELIGION Traditionally African religion was Syncretic Syncretic can be described as the blending of various ideas When Christianity and later Islam arrived, religions were often blended with traditional beliefs Can this be a conflict with a Monotheistic religion?

24 SUDANIC EMPIRES GHANA, MALI, SONGHAI All three started in the Sahel region around the headwaters of the Niger River These Empires acquired wealth in gold accumulated in Trans-Saharan Trade Old world importance of land trade Era of pre-european maritime importance

25 WHAT S SO GOOD ABOUT BEING A MIDDLE MAN? Conversion to Islam was important for trade relationships Arab and Berber traders had salt to the north Many groups to the south extracted Gold and produced Ivory All the trade empires successfully taxed all goods coming through the Empire. They were successful in receiving tribute

26 GHANA EMPIRE ( CE)

27 MALI EMPIRE ( CE)

28 SONGHAI EMPIRE ( CE)

29 TRADE NETWORKS Salt to the north Gold to the south

30 MANSA KANKAN MUSA I (MANSA MUSA) Very effective ruler, divided the Empire into different provinces Mali became an important cultural and intellectual center under Mansa Musa Important City of Timbuktu Pilgrimage to Mecca Brought thousands of solders and hundreds of camels Flooded the Egyption gold market with tribute Decrease in value from 10 to 25%

31 BANTU MIGRATIONS

32 BANTU MIGRATIONS Long complex process where two groups of Bantu speakers eventually linked up Bantu based languages began to dominate the continent This can still be seen today The Bantu people brought new agricultural practices to mostly nomadic peoples

33 MODERN LANGUAGE FAMILY MAP OF AFRICA What language family has the most land? What is important about the Niger River?

34 SWAHILI CITY-STATES A large scale ocean trading network developed on the Indian Ocean Chinese, Indian and Arab merchants all began trading on the East African coast Swahili Culture was born A blend of native Bantu based languages and Arabic Islam became the religion of the area City-states such as Zanzibar, Mombasa, and Mogadishu became wealthy through trade

35 COMPARED TO EUROPE What happens when there is plenty of land and plentiful trade? Europe had more blood shed and all conflict was over land Europe s only source of wealth was land European monarchs would envy Ghana, Mali s and Zanzibar s resources and wealth Mali was an intellectual hub while Europe crawled out of the Dark Ages

THE RISE OF ISLAM U N I T I I I

THE RISE OF ISLAM U N I T I I I THE RISE OF ISLAM U N I T I I I MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET From Mecca in modern day Saudi Arabia Muhammad was a middle aged merchant who claimed the Angel Gabriel asked him to recite the word of God. As a Merchant,

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