The Rise of. Chap. 13 Lesson 2

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1 The Rise of Chap. 13 Lesson 2

2 OBJECTIVES Explore the development and spread of Islam. Evaluate how trade affected Muslim ideas. Identify Muslims achievements.

3 Key Content Most people on the dry Arabian Peninsula were nomads, but in fertile areas people farmed and towns, such as Mecca, grew into centers of trade and worship. A man named Muhammad reported receiving messages from the angel Gabriel, which confirmed to Muhammad that there was only one God and which became the basis of Islam. After Muhammed s death, his successor united the people of the Arabian Peninsula under Muslim rule, an by 750 the Muslim empire stretched from Spain and northern Africa through Arabia and Persia and into parts of the Indus Valley. Muslims made advanced in science, medicine, law and the arts and, through trade, exchanged ideas with people within and outside the empire.

4 The Arabian Peninsula The desert covers more than 2/3 rd of the Arabian Peninsula. Some parts are dunes of shifting sand. Other parts are dry plains called steppes. Some grasses and plants grow on the steppes, but mostly its too dry to grow crops. Dunes Steppes

5

6 The Arabian Peninsula In the 500s A.D, many Arab tribes lived on the steppes and raised camels, sheep, and goats. (Herders) Some towns formed around Oasis s where there was underground water. Farming was possible in these regions. The towns became stopping points for travelers. One of the largest towns formed on the Arabian Peninsula was Mecca, in what we know as today Saudi Arabia. Trade helped Mecca grow. Mecca also held an important place of worship as arabs from all over Arabia would come and worship at the Kaaba. At that time the, the Kaaba held statues of the gods that the Arabs had come to believe in.

7 Muhammad and Islam In about 570 A.D. an Arab boy named Muhammad was born in Mecca. Muhammad was a herder, trader, and married a wealthy widow named Khadija. Muhammad was unhappy about his tribe worshiping many gods and idols. He often spent time deep in thought in a cave outside of Mecca. Muhammad reported that the angel Gabriel told him that he would become a messenger to humankind. This experience confirmed to Muhammad that there is only one God.

8 Muhammad and Islam Over the next 23 years, Muhammad received more messages. The religion based on these messages is Islam. The messages given to Muhammad make up the Qur an, the holy book of Islam. Muslims are the followers of Islam. Muhammad s family and close friends became the first Muslims. Islam was spreading through the Arab tribes and leaders in Mecca started worrying people would stop worshiping at the Kabba. The leaders persecuted the Muslims and tried to force them to give up their beliefs.

9 Muhammad and Islam Muhammad and his followers did not resist the persecutions and instead Muhammad led them to settle in the town of Medina. This journey to Madinah was known as the Hijra. While in Madinah Mohammad got a message from angel Gabriel to fight back again the persecutors. Soon after Madinah became the Muslim Capital.

10 The Muslim Empire 8 years after the Hijra, the Muslims captured the city of Mecca. After their return, Muhammad ordered that all the idols in the Kaaba be destroyed and that the Kaaba would be used for the worship of Allah only. Muhammad and his followers worked to spread the message of Islam. After Muhammads death, the Muslim leaders chose a caliph, or successor, to Muhammad.

11 The Muslim Empire A caliph governed the Muslim community according to the Qur an and Muhammad s examples. The Muslim Empire grew dramatically in the 200 years following Muhammad s death. By 750 A.D. the empire stretched from Spain and northern Africa through Arabia and Persia into parts of the Indus River Valley. Through time the Muslim community split into several groups.

12 The Muslim Empire Among the most important of the Muslim groups were the Sunni and Shi i. Sunni Muslims accepted the changing dynasties within the empire. Shi i Muslims stayed loyal to the descendants of the fourth caliph, Ali. These groups share the basic beliefs of Islam but disagree on some issues.

13 Muslim Achievements Muslims made many advances in: Science Medicine Law The Arts They also traded and exchanged ideas with people within and outside the empire. Among the Muslims most beautiful works of art are their mosques, or Islamic houses of worship. A mosque has one or more towers called minarets, from which the call to prayer is given 5 times a day.

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