Social Studies 2nd Nine Weeks. Vocabulary, People, and Places

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1 Social Studies 2nd Nine Weeks Vocabulary, People, and Places 1

2 Ahimsa Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism, Belief in nonviolence and a reverence for all life. Ascetic Severe self-discipline to live a simple life abstaining from the normal pleasure of life and material satisfaction; monk; hermit Baptism Christianity. A sacrament marked by ritual use of water and admitting the recipient to the Christian community Bar Mitzvah/Bat Mitzvah In Judaism: At the age of 13 (Bar boy, Bat - girl), children must follow the commandments. The ceremony marks the start of that obligation, along with the right to take part in special services. 2

3 Bhagavad-Gita Hinduism. One of the sacred books of Hinduism. The book is written in poetic form. The book uses a conversation between Krishna (one of Hinduisms main three gods) and Prince Arjuna to teach about ethics and the nature of god. Bible Christianity. The holy book made up of the Old and New Testaments. Brahmins Hinduism. Highest level of the Hindu caste system. The priestly caste. Buddhism Founded by Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) in India in the 6 th century BC. Belief that life is filled with suffering caused by desires. This suffering ends when desire ceases, and that enlightenment is obtained through right conduct, wisdom, and meditation that releases one from desire, suffering, and rebirth. 3

4 Caste An inherited social class that separates people from other classes by birth, occupation, or wealth. The caste system is a part of Hinduism. Christianity An Abrahamic religion founded on the life and teachings of Jesus as the messiah. Church Christianity. Place of worship. Civil Disobedience Peaceful, non-violent, non-cooperation with those in power. Made famous by Mahatma Gandhi. 4

5 Colonialism / Imperialism A policy by which a nation (called the mother country) seeks to control a foreign country (called the country) for economic or military gain. Crusades A series of military campaigns conducted in the name of Christianity and usually sanctioned by the Pope to capture the holy lands around Jerusalem. Cuneiform Writing system composed of slim triangular or wedge-shaped elements, as the characters used in writing by the ancient Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and others. Dharma Hinduism. The duty expected of someone born into a certain caste. The obedience of the dharma impacts a person s karma. 5

6 Diaspora Judaism. Scattering of the Jews to countries outside of Palestine after the Jewish uprising and the Babylonian captivity. Easter Christianity. Most holy day of worship. Marks the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Griot Professional storyteller in Western Africa. Guru Sikhism. Religious teacher. 6

7 Hajj Islam. One of the 5 Pillars of Islam that requires all Muslims that are physically and financially able to make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime. Hanukkah Judaism. Festival of lights. Not the most holy holiday in Judaism (Yon Kippur The Day of Atonement). Celebrated more in America than other countries. Hinduism A diverse religion native to India. Characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures. Note: Traditionally, Hinduism was linked to the caste system. Also, Hinduism believe in both dharma and karma. Islam Abrahamic religion characterized by the acceptance of the doctrine of submission to God and to Muhammad as the main and last prophet of God. 7

8 Jainism Jainism is an ancient religion from India that teaches that the way to liberation and bliss is to live lives of harmlessness and renunciation. Jains believe that animals and plants, as well as human beings, contain living souls. Each of these souls is considered of equal value and should be treated with respect and compassion. Jihad Islam. An individual s striving for spiritual self-perfection or a Muslim holy war or spiritual struggle against infidels (nonbelievers) Judaism Abrahamic religion that traces its origins to Abraham and having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah (first 5 books of the Old Testament) and the Talmud. Moses is considered the founder/definer of the Judaism. 8

9 Karma Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism. The effect of a person s actions and conduct during a person s life that determine a person s future destiny. The Eastern equivalent of what goes around comes around. Kosher Judaism. Conforming to dietary law. Ritually pure. Messiah Judaism and Christianity. A man who would be sent by God to restore Israel and reign righteously for all mankind. Monotheism Belief in one god. 9

10 Mosque Islam. Place of worship, community and learning. Muslim Islam. Follower of Islam. Nirvana Hinduism. Union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth (samsara). Polytheism Belief in more than one god. 10

11 Qur an Islam. Holy scripture of Islam. Ramadan Islam. Ninth month of the Islamic calendar; Muslims worldwide observe this as a month of fasting. This annual observance is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam. Reincarnation Belief in the rebirth of the soul into another earthly form. Secular Not about or connect with religion. Things not regarded as religious, spiritual, or sacred. 11

12 Sikhism Founded 16th century in the Punjab district (now India and Pakistan) by Guru Nanak. Sikhism is a monotheistic religion. Stresses the importance of doing good actions rather than merely carrying out rituals. Lives by the rule, Frighten now, fear none. Synagogue Judaism. A building or place of meeting for worship and religious instruction in the Jewish faith Torah Judaism. First five book of the Old Testament (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy). Authorship has bee ascribed to Moses. Trinity Christianity. The unity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as three persons in one Godhead 12

13 Ziggurat Pyramid-temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of an ancient Sumerian citystate. Zionism. Judaism. A form of nationalism of Jews and Jewish culture that supports a Jewish nation state in territory defined as the Land of Israel 13

14 People Abraham Siddhartha Gautama Hammurabi Mohandas Gandhi Jesus Christ 14

15 Ibn Battuta Muhammad Ali Jinnah Moses Guru Nanak Muhammad Mother Teresa 15

16 Places Angkor Wat Church of the Holy Sepulcher Dome of the Rock Mount Everest Hagia Sophia 16

17 Masada Sacred Mosque of Mecca Petra Taj Mahal Western Wall 17

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