2 5 Major Religions Christianity Islam Judaism Buddhism Hinduism + Confucianism/Taoism
3 5 Categories of Religions 1. Monotheistic Belief in one God (Christianity, Islam, Judaism) 2. Polytheism Belief in more than one god (ex. Hinduism) 3. Non-theistic Does not worship any god (ex. Buddhism) 4. Atheism Belief there is no supernatural 5. Animism Worship of nature spirits (Native Americans)
4 Proselytize To try and convert somebody to another religion Why is it hard to argue religion and politics?
5 A Global View Religion is defined as an organized system of beliefs, ceremonies, practices, and worship that center around one or more gods. Religion has a significant impact on world history. Religion has brought many people together. Religion has also torn many apart.
6 Religion and World Population
7 J. JESUS LIFE & TEACHINGS IN NEW TESTAMENT (BIBLE) -Bible also has Old Testament Q: What religion does the Old Testament come from? Judaism. The old testament is the Jewish Torah
8 E. Early Church Councils made doctrines (beliefs) EARLY DOCTRINES: 1. Bible is the Word of God 2. Jesus is God AND God s son 3.Jesus died and rose from Dead (proves he is God) 4. Trinity - God has 3 parts Father, Son, Holy Spirit
9 S. Second Monotheistic Religion Q. What was the first monotheistic religion? Judaism C and J both started in the Middle East (Jerusalem) Q: What is the trinity 1. There is one God 2. God is three persons 3. Each person is fully God
10 U. United under the Catholic Church until 1517 In 1517, Martin Luther challenged to reform the church. Why? Practices included selling indulgences He did not accept the Pope s authority The church split into eventually three major denominations: 1. Catholic 2. Protestant 3. Orthodox.
11 S. Son of God = Jesus Believe in him and you get to heaven or your salvation Q: Where do Christians believe people go after death if they don t believe in Jesus? Matthew 24:13 but he who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 16:16 Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned. Romans 10:9 That if you confess with your mouth, "Jesus is Lord," and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.
12 Teachings of Jesus Christ
13 T. = Jewish Holy Book (Christians call the Torah the Old Testament)
14 O. = Oh, So what are the Questions symbols and rituals of Jews? 1. Mount Mariah became known as what? 2. In 70 A.D. who destroyed the temple? What were the Jews forced to do? 3. What is a Bar Mitzvah?
15 O. = Oh, So what are the symbols and rituals of Jews?
16 R. = Religious law/10 Commandments Covenant between God and the Hebrew people Jews obey laws and in return, God will protect them.
17 A. = Abraham = Founder The covenant Hebrews can live in Israel if they follow God and his laws Why? Abraham made the ultimate sacrifice
18 H. = Hebrews first believers in Monotheism Other Monotheistic religions? Christianity, Islam
19 Video Questions 1. When was Israel created? How many live there today? 2. Why do Jews refer to Israel as the promised land? 3. What was the importance of Moses (2)?
20 Video: The Story of Abraham
21 The Beliefs of Islam = ISLAMIC
22 I. = Islam s Holy Book = Qu ran The book is the spiritual guide on matters of faith and practice for all Muslims. 114 Suras or Chapters
23 S. = Started in Middle East (Saudi Arabia)
24 L. = Laws (5 Pillars of Islam) 1. Faith in Allah (God) There is no God but Allah 2. Prayer (5 times daily toward Mecca) 3. Alms responsibility to support the less fortunate. You give money to the poor (alms) through a religious tax. 4. Fasting during Ramadan 2016 June 5 to July 5 They eat and drink nothing between dawn and sunset. A simple meal is eaten at the end of the day (Exception elderly, very ill, or pregnant). The duty of fasting reminds Muslims that they have greater needs than bread. What does this mean? 5. Pilgrimage (to Mecca) or the Hajj. Began on September 9 and ended on the 14th this month3
25 A. = Allah Allah = Islam name for God in Arabic
26 M. = Muhammad While he was praying a voice called to him outside a cave in Mecca. It was the archangel Gabriel Mohammad was a 40 year old religious man Lived between After hearing this he was convinced of three things: 1. Muhammad is the one and only prophet of Islam 2. There is only one God and he must teach people that 613 he does 3. Rich need to help out the poor Islam means submission to the will of Allah. Muslim means one who has submitted.
27 I. = Islam = Islam means submission to the will of Allah. Muslim means one who has submitted.
28 C. =Cities (holy): Mecca, Medina, & Jerusalem 1. Muhammad was born in Mecca, but had to leave. 2. -Muhammad started Islam in Medina 3. Muhammad left for heaven (passed away) from Jerusalem Importance of Jerusalem? C and J were worshipping one God Why? His followers and people in ME were worshipping many different gods or false idols. Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem
29 C. Considering The Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca Kaaba or the Cube is in the center of the most sacred mosque in Islam called Al- Masjid al-haram It is believed that it was built by Abraham and his son Ishmael. Muslims circle the Kaaba seven times, in a counter-clockwise fashion It s ritual symbolism of planetary motion and that Muslims are one with God.
30 Questions for Video 1. What % of women in Egypt wear a veil? 2. Do you believe the veil(hijab) is a tool to silence women or is the tradition just being modest? Why or why not? Can you judge American women on how they dress? How do they dress?
31 Muslim Tradition and the Veil
32 B. Buddha: Siddhartha Gautama (Founder) Buddha = Enlightened One Enlightened means state of perfect wisdom
33 U. = U Must Be Compassionate! "Compassion for others is the chief law of human existence. -Fyodor Dostoyevsky
34 D. = Doctrine The Four Noble Truths 1. Suffering Exists 2. Desires make us suffer 3. End desires = end suffering 4. Follow 8-fold path to end desires
35 D. = Doctrine /Follow 8-fold path to enlightenment -When enlightened one reaches nirvana. The release from pain and suffering achieved after enlightenment There is no more reincarnation Follow the rules to get to nirvana
36 H. = Hey, Buddhism is founded in India Q: What other world religion was founded in India? A: Hinduism Q: Then why isn t Buddhism the dominant religion in India? A: No need to convert
37 A. = Asoka spread Buddhism to China, Japan, SE Asia Asoka (1 st century leader of India) A soka you, A soka you! How? Sent Missionaries Asoka s super soka! Buddhism spread here
38 The Belief of Hinduism: KARMA Hinduism
39 K. = Karma (Good or Bad Deeds) Is Reincarnation based on behavior? Yes Good Karma = go UP caste system in next life Bad Karma = go DOWN caste system in next life The 4 Major Castes
40 A. = All Hindus USED to live in India s Caste System: Strict Classes Limited opportunities in the caste system Caste Social status and law that determines 1. who you can marry 2. work you did 3. who you can eat with However, in 1950, the Indian Gov. outlawed the Caste system in India. But, are some groups still discriminated against? Untouchables Trash collectors, butchers, gravediggers don t touch them because they will endanger your ritual purity.
41 Former Caste System In untouchability, Dalits have faced work and descent-based discrimination at the hands of the dominant castes. 1. Prohibition from eating with other caste members/separate utensils in restaurants. 2. Provision of separate glasses for Dalits in village tea stalls 3. Prohibition from entering into village temples 4. Prohibition from wearing sandals or holding umbrellas in front of higher caste members 5. Prohibition from entering other caste homes 6. Separate burial grounds 7. Segregation of Dalit children in schools 8. Sub-standard wages 9. Slave Labor
42 R. = Reincarnation = Rebirth which is based on Karma All living things have part of the same universal spirit in them
43 M. = Many gods, Polytheistic -Gods are forms of the same universal spirit stories of Gods in Vedas(holy writings) 1. Brahma (Creator) 2. Vishnu (Protector) 3. Shiva (Destroyer) Hindus are free today to choose the god they worship or none at all, however, family tradition may dictate what you do They must choose among 3 paths to achieve moksha (perfect understanding) 1. Right thinking 2. Path of right action 3. Path of religious devotion
44 A. = All Hindus Want to End -Good enough Karma = become 1 with universal spirit Once you get to the top and get good Karma you get to live with the gods-- no more reincarnation Reincarnation
45 Discussion Questions 1. Where specifically, is the Ganges located (region/city)? 2. Hindus believe bathing in the Ganges is a profound spiritual experience. What two uses do Hindus believe the river provides? 3. One ritual for Hindus is to shave the heads of youth at least once. Why is the hair shaved?
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3 Major Monotheistic Religions the Abrahamic Religions Monotheism a belief in one god The 3 major monotheistic religions are: Judaism Christianity Islam Overview All 3 monotheistic religions view Jerusalem
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A Global View Religion is defined as an organized system of beliefs, ceremonies, practices, and worship that centers on one or more gods. As many chapters in this book explain, religion has had a significant