2 Key Issues Where are religions distributed? Why do religions have different distributions? Why do religions organize space and distinctive patterns? Why do territorial conflicts arise among religious groups?
3 Where Are Religions Distributed? Distribution of Religions Geographers distinguish two types of religions: 1. Universalizing religions- attempt to be global by appealing to all people regardless of location or culture. 58 percent of world s population practices a universalizing religion.» Christianity: 2.1 billion Christians» Islam: 1.5 billion Muslims» Buddhism: 376 million Buddhists 2. Ethnic religions- appeal primarily to one group of people living in one place. 26 percent of world s population practices an ethnic religion.
4 World Distribution of Religions Figure 6-3
5 FIGURE 6-4 ADHERENTS OF WORLD RELIGIONS Nonreligious includes atheists and agnostics.
6 FIGURE 6-5 DISTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIANS At least 80 percent of the population adheres to Christianity in Europe, the Western Hemisphere, the South Pacific, and selected countries in sub-saharan Africa.
7 Where Are Religions Distributed? Branches of Universalizing Religions Three principal universalizing religions divided into branches, denominations, and sects. A branch is a large and fundamental division within a religion. A denomination is a division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body. A sect is a relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
8 Where Are Religions Distributed? Branches of Universalizing Religions Branches of Christianity Three major branches include 1. Roman Catholic (51 percent of the world s Christians) 2. Protestant (24 percent of the world s Christians) 3. Orthodox (11 percent of the world s Christians) Distribution of Branches of Christianity in Europe Roman Catholicism dominant branch in southwestern and eastern Europe. Protestantism dominant branch in northwestern Europe. Orthodoxy dominant branch in eastern and southeastern Europe.
9 Branches of Christianity in Europe Two great schisms in Christianity Emergence of Byzantine Empire Protestant Reformation
10 Belief in God in Europe Today
11 Belief among Europeans
12 Belief in Evolution
13 Where Are Religions Distributed? Branches of Universalizing religions Other, smaller branches of Christianity comprise 14 percent of all Christians Coptic & Ethiopian Churches Egypt & Ethiopia Armenian Church Armenia, Syria Maronite Church Lebanon Assyrian & Chaldean Churches (Nestorians) Iraq, India Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) Utah
14 Where Are Religions Distributed? Branches of Universalizing Religions Branches of Christianity in the Western Hemisphere 93 percent of Christians in Latin America are Roman Catholic. 40 percent in North America Protestant churches have approximately 82 million members in the United States. Baptist church has largest number of adherents (37 million).
15 Distribution of Christians in the United States Figure 6-7
16 FIGURE 6-6 PERCENTAGE OF FAITHS IN THE UNITED STATES.
17 Religions of the United States
18 Christianity in North America Figure 5.24
19 Where Are Religions Distributed? Islam Branches of Islam Two major branches include 1. Sunni» Largest branch in most Muslim countries in Southwest Asia and North Africa» 83 percent of all Muslims 2. Shiite» Greatly concentrated in the Middle Eastern countries of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Oman, and Bahrain» 16 percent of all Muslims» Other branches» Nation of Islam (Black Muslims)» Kharijites» Sufis» Druzes
20 FIGURE 6-8 DISTRIBUTION OF MUSLIMS At least 80 percent of the population adheres to Islam in Southwest Asia & North Africa and selected countries in Southeast Asia.
21 Where Are Religions Distributed? Buddhism Branches of Buddhism Three major branches include 1. Mahayana» 56 percent of Buddhists» Located primarily in China, Japan, and Korea 2. Theravada» 38 percent of Buddhists» Located primarily in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand 3. Vajrayana» 6 percent of Buddhists» Located primarily in Tibet and Mongolia.
22 FIGURE 6-9 DISTRIBUTION OF BUDDHISTS AND SIKHS At least 40 percent of the population adheres to Buddhism in East Asia and Southeast Asia. At least 40 percent of the population adheres to Sikhism in northwestern India.
23 Where Are Religions Distributed? Other Universalizing religions Sikhism Sikh = disciple Founded by Guru Nanak in 15 th century God as One Supreme Being, or Creator 23 million adherents All but 3 million are concentrated in the Punjab state of India Baha i Faith Founded in Shiraz, Iran in 1844 by Siyyid Ali Muhammed the Bab Husayn Ali Nuri Baha u llah as prophet and messenger of God Unification of religion through abolition of racial, class, and religious practices
24 Where Are Religions Distributed? Ethnic Religions Often remain within the culture where they originated. Typically have relatively more clustered distributions than do universalizing religions. Hinduism Ethnic religion with largest number of followers 900 million adherents Nearly all concentrated in India and Nepal
25 FIGURE 6-10 DISTRIBUTION OF HINDUS All but 10 percent of the world s Hindus live in India.
26 Where Are Religions Distributed? Other Ethnic Religions Confucianism China Taoism (Daoism) China Shintoism Japan All practiced in combination with Buddhism (a universalizing religion) Blending or combining of several traditions is known as syncretism. Animism consists of ethnic religions whose followers believe that inanimate objects or natural events, such as natural disasters, have spirits and conscious life. 100 million Africans adhere to animism.
27 FIGURE 6-11 DISTRIBUTION OF TAOISTS All but 4 percent of the world s Hindus live in China.
28 FIGURE 6-12 DISTRIBUTION OF AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGIONS Animimism
29 Where Are Religions Distributed? Ethnic Religions Judaism First recorded religion to espouse monotheism, belief that there is only one God. Contrasts polytheism- the worship of a collection of gods. Distribution 2/5 live in the United States 2/5 live in Israel. Christianity and Islam find some of their roots in Judaism.
30 Dispersion of Jews after expulsion from Holy Land
31 FIGURE 6-22 DISTRIBUTION OF JEWS, 1910 AND 2010
32 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Origins of Religions Universalizing regions have precise places of origin. Often based on events in the life of an influential man. Ethnic religions not tied to single historical individual; often have unclear or unknown origins.
33 Origins of religions Ethnic Judaism Moses Abraham Father/patriarch of Judaism arrived Canaan 4,000 years ago Judah one of Jacob s sons Jacob = Israel
34 Hinduism No clear founder Origins of religions Earliest use of Hinduism = sixth century B.C. Archaeological evidence dating from 2500 B.C. World s oldest major religion South Asia origins Caste structure of society Reincarnation Karma Many paths to spirituality & worship God (Brahma) Vishnu (Krishna) Siva Shakti
35 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Origins of Religions Christianity Founded: ~2,000 years ago Founding: Based on teachings of Jesus Holy book: Bible Origin: Region located in present-day Palestine
36 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Origin of religions Islam Founded: ~1,500 years ago Founder: Prophet Muhammad Origin: Makkah (Mecca) located in present-day Saudi Arabia Holy book: Koran Followers are expected to observe the five pillars: (1) repeated saying of the basic creed; (2) prayers five times daily at appointed times; (3) a month of daytime fasting during Ramadan; (4) almsgiving; and, (5) if possible, a pilgrimage to Mecca.
37 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Origin of religions Buddhism Founded: ~2,500 years ago Founder: Siddhartha Gautama Origin: Present-day India/Nepal The Four Noble Truths 1) All living beings endure suffering 2) Suffering caused by desire to live 3) Goal is to escape suffering 4) Nirvana, a state of complete redemption, is achieved Eightfold Path of conduct meditation
38 Why Do Religions Have Different Origin of religions Other Universalizing: Sikhism Distributions? Guru Nanak ( A.D.) Amritsar, Punjab, India Holy Granth of the Enlightenment Baha i Faith Siyyid Ali Muhammed the Bab (1844 A.D.) Iran
39 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Diffusion of Religions Asia is home to each hearth for Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. Followers transmitted the messages preached in the hearths to people elsewhere. Each of the three main universalizing religions has a distinct diffusion pattern.
40 FIGURE 6-18 DIFFUSION OF UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS
41 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Diffusion of Religions Christianity Hierarchical Diffusion Emperor Constantine helped diffuse the religion throughout the Roman Empire by embracing Christianity. Relocation Diffusion Missionaries, individuals who help transmit a religion through relocation diffusion, initially diffused the religion along protected sea routes and the excellent Roman roads. Migration and missionary activity by Europeans since 1500 have extended Christianity all over the world.» Permanent resettlement in the Americas, Australia, and New Zealand
42 FIGURE 6-19 DIFFUSION OF CHRISTIANITY
43 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Diffusion of Religions Islam Muhammad s successors organized followers into armies and led a conquest to spread the religion over an extensive area of Africa Asia Europe Relocation diffusion of missionaries to portions of sub- Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia transmitted the religion well beyond its hearth.
44 FIGURE 6-20 DIFFUSION OF ISLAM
45 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Diffusion of Religions Buddhism Diffused relatively slowly from its origin in northeastern India. Emperor Asoka accredited with much of its diffusion throughout the Magadhan Empire (273 to 232 B.C.). Missionaries sent to territories neighboring the empire. Buddhism introduced to China along trade routes in the first century A.D.
46 FIGURE 6-21 DIFFUSION OF BUDDHISM
47 Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions? Diffusion of Religions Ethnic Religions Most have limited, if any, diffusion. Lack missionaries Diffusion to new places is possible, if adherents migrate for economic gains and are not forced to adopt a strongly entrenched universalizing religion. Judaism s diffusion is unlike other ethnic religions because it is practiced well beyond its place of origin. Other nationalities have historically persecuted Jews living in their midst because of their retention of Judaism.
48 Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Sacred Space Places of worship in Universalizing Religions. Christian Churches More significant role in Christianity than in other religions because of belief that building is the house of God. Church traditionally largest and tallest building in a community. Additional significance given to it by locating it in a prominent location e.g., square or center of town No single architectural style
50 Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Ways? Bahá í Houses of Worship Dispersed to different continents Open to adherents of all religion Baha i Temple (Panama City, Panama)
51 Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Sacred Space in Universalizing Religions Muslim Mosques Space for community assembly Not viewed as a sanctified place Attention to cardinal directions is emphasized e.g., pulpit at end of a courtyard faces Makkah. Distinctive feature is a minaret, a tower where a man known as a muezzin summons people to worship.
52 Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Sacred Space Places of worship in Universalizing Religions Buddhist Pagodas, Wats, Stupas, Gompas & Chortens Prominent and ornate element on landscape that often includes tall, many-sided towers arranged in a series of tiers, balconies, and slanting roofs. Contain relics believed to be a portion of Buddha s body or clothing. Not designed for congregational worship.
53 Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Sacred Places in Universalizing Religions Cities and places associated with the founder s life are endowed with holiness. Not necessarily in close proximity of each other Not needed to be related to any particular physical environment Emphasis placed on identifying shrines that mark locations of important events in the life of founder Buddhism Buddha Christianity Jesus Islam Muhammad Sikhism Guru Nanak Pilgrimages, journeys for religious purposes, are incorporated in Islamic doctrine
54 FIGURE 6-26 HOLY PLACES IN BUDDHISM
55 Jerusalem Jerusalem is a city holy to 3 faiths: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
56 The Temple Mount Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine Temple Mount contains sites holy to both Jews and Muslims, including the Western Wall of the Second Temple, al-aqsa Mosque, and the Dome of the Rock.
57 Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Sacred Places in Universalizing Religions Holy Places in Islam Holiest locations are in cities associated with Prophet Muhammad. Holiest City is Makkah (Mecca), birthplace of Muhammad.» Now contains the holiest object in the Islamic landscape al-ka ba a cubelike structure encased in silk that stands in Islam s largest mosque, Masjid al-haram. Second-most-holy place is Madinah (Medina).» Muhammad s tomb is in Madinah.
58 Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? The Landscape in Ethnic Religions Ethnic religions are closely tied to the physical geography of a particular place. Hindu Landscape Hinduism closely tied to physical geography of India Solstice» Mt. Kailas (Tibet) is holy because it is home to Siva.» Holiest places are riverbanks and coastlines.» Hindus believe that they achieve purification by bathing in holy rivers e.g., Ganges River Special significance in some ethnic religions» Stonehenge is a prominent remnant of a pagan structure aligned so that sun rises between two stones on solstices.
59 Hindu Holy Places
60 Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Disposing of the Dead Burial Christians, Muslims, and Jews typically bury the deceased in designated areas called cemeteries. Cemeteries were typically only public open space in congested urban places prior to the nineteenth century. Cremation Hindus wash the bodies of the deceased with water from the Ganges River first, then burn them with a slow fire on a funeral pyre. Exposure to scavengers Zoroastrians exposed the dead bodies to scavenging birds on top of towers of silence
61 Summary The world has three large universalizing religions Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism each of which is divided into branches and denominations. A universalizing religion has a known origin and clear patterns of diffusion, whereas ethnic religions typically have unknown origins and little diffusion.
62 Summary Holy places and holidays in a universalizing religion are related to the events in the life of its founder or prophet. They are related to the local physical geography in an ethnic religion. With the Earth s surface dominated by four large religions, expansion of the territory occupied by one religion may reduce the territory of another.
63 Study Questions 1. Iran is the stronghold of which branch of Islam? 2. The founder of Islam was 3. Which religions are universalizing religions? 4. The dominant branch of Islam in most of the Islamic world is 5. Lutherans are clustered in the Upper Midwest region of the United States mainly due to immigration from where? 6. Roman Catholics are clustered in the U.S. southwest primarily because of migration from where? 7. Jerusalem is a Holy City to which 3 religions? 8. The holiest city for all Muslims and where Islam was founded is: 9. The founder of Buddhism was 10. The holy city where Hindus perform their ritual bathing in the Ganges River is: 11. The divine, spiritual leader of Vajrayana Buddhists, exiled from Tibet, is called the: 12. Lutherans are clustered mostly in which part of Europe? 13. Lutherans are clustered in the United States. A. northeastern B. southern C. southwestern D. upper midwestern E. northwestern 14. Eastern Orthodoxy is dominant in which countries of Europe? 15. Which religion (and denomination) is dominant in Latin America? 16. What is the world's largest ethnic religion? 17. Vajrayana Buddhism is practiced mostly where? 18. Shintoism is practiced where? Pearson Education, Inc.
64 Chapter 6: Religions 19. A person attempting to detect voices or personalities, and therefore spirits, within forests and streams would likely be an A) animist B) atheist C) agnostic D) Hindu E) Christian 20. The emergence of the Byzantine Empire, after having broken off from the Roman Empire, brought about the emergence of the religion in Southeastern Europe. 21. The expansion of the Ottoman Turkish Empire into southeastern Europe introduced the religion of in that region. 22. Theravada Buddhism is practiced mainly in which Asian countries? 23. Mahayana Buddhism is practiced mainly in which Asian countries? 24. Giving alms to the poor, among 4 other pillars, is a fundamental tenant of 25. The 4 Noble Truths is the fundamental doctrine of which religion? 26. Non-religious populations and the belief in evolution have become strongest today in which region? 27. The Hajj refers to a pilgrimage of to where? 28. The Prophet Mohammed was believed to have ascended to heaven from 29. Which faith seeks unification of all the world s major religions? 30. Maronites are a sect of Christians that is concentrated mostly in which country? 31. Coptics are a sect of Christians that is concentrated mostly in which country? 32. Which faith emerged out of Hinduism and combines the elements of giving of alms to the poor along with the elimination of the caste system and a purely vegetarian diet? 33. Islam and Christianity have been called both "universalizing" and proselytizing religions because each A. is widely distributed with many adherents on all continents. B. proclaims the divine origin of the universe. C. claims universal applicability and seeks converts. D. promises a universally accessible afterlife for all humanity Pearson Education, Inc.
65 The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography 34. Which of the following beliefs is NOT a shared belief of the religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam? A. There is one God. B. God can be revealed to humans through prophets. C. Adam was the first human. D. Believers must pray 5 times daily. 35. The tower from which Muslims receive their call to prayer is called a 36. Muslims gather to worship in a 37. Which of the following religions has remained dominant in the area of the man who founded it? 38. Which religions have no specific origin or a single known founder? 39. Followers of which religions trace their origin to Abraham? 40. Hinduism's caste system does what? 41. Which branch or denomination of Christianity is dominant in the southeastern U.S.? 42. Which branch or denomination of Christianity is dominant in the southwestern U.S.? 43. Which universalizing religion has remained the most concentrated and the least diffused? 44. Cremation is more important than burial in which religion? 45. Which ethnic religion has become most highly dispersed around the world due to historic persecution and consequent relocation? 46. The Arabs brought which religion to Southeast Asian countries of Indonesia and Malaysia? 47. Which religion was once dominant in Spain before 1492? 48. Where are Hindus found outside India? 49. Which region of the world has been dominated overwhelmingly by Islam ever since it was founded? 50. Which of the following is not one of the five pillars of Islam? A. Accept Allah as the one God B. Donate to charities C. Fast during the month of Ramadan D. Make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem E. Pray five times daily Pearson Education, Inc.
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1. Which culture is credited with the development of gunpowder, the abacus, and the compass? A) Chinese B) Persian C) Indian D) Japanese 2. Which geographic factor directly influenced the early interactions
N. Africa & S.W. Asia Chapter #8, Section #2 Muhammad & Islam Mecca Located in the mountains of western Saudi Arabia Began as an early trade center Hub for camel caravans trading throughout Southwest Asia