1 Chapter 7 Religion pages Field Note: Dying and Resurrecting:
2 pg. 177 Why did the Soviet Union let the churches collapse? because the different religions set Soviet against Soviet, and the church opposed communism What was wrong with that? Soviet philosophy re: religion
3 page 178 Let s look at Soviet history: came into being in the 1920s government wanted to knit together whole empire from East Europe to the Pacific people who lived in all these lands all had their own cultures (customs, religions, languages, etc.) which the Soviet Union wanted to blend into one 15 republics in the Soviet Union, each an independent country before being annexed 100 ethnically distinct territories
4 So what did the Soviet government do to diminish the religious diversity of the people? Chose an official policy of atheism and discouraged religious practices the state seized church bells and other religious paraphernalia demolished many churches converted churches to secular use in the Muslim republics the Soviet government tolerated Islam among the old, but not the young (Why?) they thought they would erase the imprints of Christ and Islam result: some religious practices went underground where some disappeared and some thrived
5 Armenia-Azerbaijan show how Soviet policies failed to diminish differences in the long run here s what happened: Armenia-Christian Azerbaijan-Muslim Soviet Union wanted people to be loyal to the Soviet Union and not to their republics so they made up boundaries within each republic emphasizing local areas over national in the middle of Azerbaijan they formed a border around Christian area and called it Nagarno-Karabakh in Armenia border around Muslim area and called it - Nakhichevan
6 they did this to separate ethnic groups within small areas so there would be more local control as soon as the Soviet Union collapsed, chaos happened ethnic strife broke out immediately
7 pg 179 What is religion, and what role does it play in culture? like language, religion is the foundation of culture, and like language, it is constantly in flux it can also become extinct and thrive like language when it comes in contact with others major religions have diffused all over the world through: conversion migration conversion still happens today as missionaries spread beliefs and people adopt new faiths
8 the cultural landscape is marked by religion: most obviously by churches, mosques, temples, cemeteries, shrines, staves, and symbols more subtle ways are by: the presence or absence of stores selling alcohol, signs depicting the human form in particular ways, modes of dress, personal habits (beards, ritual scars) ex. Pakistan in 1991 must process a beard to be a judge - showed both the place of women in the legal system and belief that Muslim men should wear beards
9 Religion a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities. this means trying to explain how people should behave How does religion manifest itself? in the worship of the souls of ancestors who are thought to inhabit natural objects mountains, animals, trees by the belief that a certain living person possesses special abilities given by a supernatural power. in the belief that a deity or deities a god or goddess; supreme deity God as in the great world religions by influencing behaviors during waking hours through rituals and practice
10 some rituals may mark important events in people s lives: births, deaths, attaining adulthood, marriage rituals are typically expressed at regular intervals in a routine manner. ex. certain days in the Christian and Jewish worlds - certain times of the day in the Muslim world - according to certain astronomic events in the Jewish, Hindu, Muslim and Christian worlds pg. 180 a common ritual is prayer when do people pray mealtime, sunrise/sunset, bed time, morning
11 pg 181 although religious beliefs influence many societies, secularism prevails in some societies secularism the idea that ethical and moral standards should be (formed) formulated and (followed) adhered to for life on Earth and not to accommodate the rules of a deity and promises of and afterlife (but what does that mean?)
12 in secular societies organized religion has become less significant in the lives of most people But even in secular societies, religion can be seen all over: in art, history, customs, and beliefs. it influences in art, history, customs, and beliefs it influences what you eat, when you work, when you shop, and what you are allowed to do (how so?)
13 How has organized religion had a powerful effect on human societies? major force in combating social ills sustaining the poor promoting the arts educating the deprived advancing medical knowledge but it also has: blocked scientific study encouraged the oppression of dissidents supported colonialism and exploitation condemned women to an inferior status
14 pg 181 Religions are classified into 3 categories based on how they approach divinity: Monotheistic religions worship a single deity, a God, or Allah polytheistic religions worship more that one deity animistic religions belief that inanimate objects possess spirits and should be revered - ex. mountains, boulders, rivers, trees throughout history virtually all religions were either animistic or polytheistic
15 around 3500 years ago a monotheistic religion developed in SW Asia it was called Zoroastanism some think Judaism, Christianity, and Islam can be traced to Zoroastanism influences others believe Judaism was the first monotheistic religion By 500 BCE (before the common era) 4 major hearths of relition and philosophy were developed in the world: Northern shores of Mediterranean Sea Greek Philosophy South Asian along Indus River Valley Hinduism eastern Mediterranean Sea Judaism Huang He River Valley Chinese Philosophies
16 these impacted other religions as shown on figure 2.5 p 181 the 2 religions with the greatest number of adherents today, Christianity and Islam, were both influenced by Judaism and Greek philosophy
17 pg. 182 The World Map of Religions Today: (read 1 st paragraph re: maps of religions and the accuracy of them) the map does show: how far Christian religions have diffused the extent of the diffusion of Islam connection between Hinduism and a huge population importance of Buddhism in Asia
18 pg 183 Each of the widespread religions are universalizing religions those that actively seek converts because they view themselves as offering belief systems that are universally appropriate and appealing Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism are all universalizing there are relatively few universalizing religions and they re not that old most religions have not sought converts
19 in ethnic religions adherents are born into the faith and converts are not actively sought. ethnic religions tend to be spatially concentrated: ex.- traditional religions in Africa and South America main exception is Judaism it is an ethnic religion whose adherents are widely scattered as a result of forced and voluntary migration
20 pg 184 Hinduism ranks 3 rd after Christianity and Islam in terms of number of followers one of the oldest religions in the world over 4000 years old originated in the Indus River Valley in Pakistan It s unique in a number of ways: it does not have a single founder does not have a single theology does not have an agreement on its origin
21 its ancient practices include: ritual bathing the belief in reincarnation Aryans migrated to the Indus region and came up with the name Hinduism for the name of the religious practices of the people who lived along the Indus River Hinduism is no longer associated with its hearth Pakistan Pakistan is primarily a Muslim country and Hinduism is found mainly in India (where the Ganges River is located)
22 There is a lace of agreement on defining what king of religion Hinduism is in relation to other religion some say polytheistic because there are a lot of gods Hindus say monotheistic because their one god is Brahman (universal soul) and their other gods are various expressions of Brahman It is considered an ethnic religion because Hindus do not seek converts Hindus did go into Southeast Asia and diffused their religion long before Buddhism went there
23 Hinduism is not centrally organized it doesn t have an administrative or bureaucratic structure it doesn t have a prophet or single book of scriptures but they do have the Vedas 4 texts that make up the sacred books of Hinduism fundamental doctrine is karma which deals with the transferability of the soul through reincarnation the soul moves through the hierarchy and moves upward until it reached Brahma soul moves upward or downward according to the individual s behavior in the present life good deeds lead to a higher level in the next life and bad behavior leads to demotion to a lower level
24 all souls, even animals, do this the principle of reincarnation is the cornerstone of Hinduism (first sentence of page 185) pg 185 Hinduism s doctrines are closely tied to the caste system the social classes of Hindu society closely tied to ancestry and occupation it s very discriminatory especially to the lowest castes: the untouchables
25 Diffusion of Hinduism started in western part of South Asia and spread eastward before Christianity is spread into Southeast Asia and took over traditional faiths Islam and Christianity had an effect on Hinduism (read ex. bottom of L.C. and top of R.C.) Sikhism came from Islam and Hinduism followers disliked the worship of idols and the caste system but liked the concepts of reincarnation and karma
26 It started in Pakistan, reached its full development in India, and spread into South East Asia why is it not surprising that Hinduism is geographically concentrated in a small area? because it s an ethnic religion and doesn t seek converts Buddhism and Islam overtook where Hinduism was once strong. Except on the island of Bali. Why there? pg 186 it became a refuge for Hindu holy men, nobles, and intellectuals Outside South Asia and Bali, Hinduism s presence in minor has spread to small parts of the world through migration Brits to it from South Asia to its colonies in : east and south Africa; the Caribbean, and Norther South American and the Pacific Islands
27 Buddhism splintered from Hinduism 2500 years ago came as a reaction to Hindu teachings at the time especially the caste system and kept millions in poverty Prince Siddartha Guatama founded Buddhism Buddha (enlightened one) did not like the misery around him he became known as Buddha (the enlightened one) spoke out against the caste system said anyone could attain salvation, no matter their social standing What did he think was the way people could attain enlightenment? (pg 186 R.C. 1 st paragraph)
28 So how did Buddhism spread? slowly after Buddha s death in 489 BCE then in 3 rd century BCE Emperor Asoka became a convert he was the leader of a large Indian state he wanted to rule his country according to the teachings of Buddha and he sent missionaries to spread Buddha s teachings it spread south to Sri Lanka, west toward the Mediterranean Sea, north into Tibet, and east into China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and Indonesia. it began to decline in its country of origin as Hinduism got stronger in India today practiced by few in India thrives in Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, Nepal, Tibet, Korea, and Japan
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