2 1. Religion: A system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities. Perceived ultimate priorities often translate into a list of things a follower should do and ways a follower should behave.
3 Classifications of Religions 2. Monotheistic religions worship a single deity.
4 3. Polytheistic religions worship more than one deity, even thousands.
5 4. Animistic religions belief that inanimate objects posses spirits and should be revered
6 5. Universalizing religions religions that actively seek converts because members believe they offer belief systems of universal appropriateness and appeal.
7 6. Ethnic religions religions whose adherents are born into the faith and whose members do not actively seek converts.
9 7. Indigenous Religions Belief systems and philosophies practiced and passed from generation to generation among peoples within an indigenous tribe or group. Indigenous = produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment.
12 8. Shamanism Community faith in traditional societies in which people follow a shaman. The shaman is a religious leader, teacher, healer and visionary.
13 9. Theocracy A system of government which religious leaders rule in the name of God.
14 10. Religious Landscape The impact of religion on the cultural landscape the physical imprint of the religion in a region.
15 11. Sacred Sites: Places or spaces people infuse with religious meaning.
17 12. Pilgrimage: Purposeful travel to a religious site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site.
20 13. Hinduism Originated: In Indus River Valley over 4000 years ago. Core Beliefs: Ritual bathing, karma, reincarnation Sacred Text: Vedas Sacred Sites: Ganges River Diffusion: Through South Asia and into Southeast Asia
21 14. Reincarnation The rebirth of a soul in a new body. Reincarnation in Hinduism is not limited to being born as human. You may have had prior lives as animals, plants, or as divine beings who rule part of nature. If it has life, then it is part of the cycle.
22 15. Caste System The strict social segregation of people on the basis of ancestry and occupation. Specifically in India s Hindu society.
23 Four Main Classes - Varnas
24 16. The Untouchables The untouchables were the outcastes, or people beyond the caste system. Their jobs or habits involved polluting activities including: Any job that involved ending a life, such as fishing. Killing or disposing of dead cattle or working with their hides. Any contact with human emissions such as sweat, urine, or feces. This included occupational groups such as sweepers and washermen. People who ate meat.
28 17. Buddhism Originated: Splintered from Hinduism 2500 years ago. Originated in a region from Nepal south to the Ganges River area. Core Beliefs: Anyone can achieve salvation, reach enlightenment Founder: Siddartha (the Buddha) Sacred Sites: Stupas Diffusion: Most strongly into Tibet in the north and into East Asia
35 18. Buddhist Stupas - 72 stupas, each containing a sculpture of the Buddha in meditation were built around 800 CE and still stand in Borobudur, Indonesia.
36 19. Shintoism Originated: In Japan, around 1000 BCE Core Beliefs: Spiritual powers exist in the natural world, Spirits called Kami live in natural places such as animals, plants, stones, mountains, people and the dead. Many practice Shintoism and Buddhism. Diffusion: Located mainly in Japan. Some limited diffusion in East Asia.
37 20. Taoism Originated: In China more than 2500 years ago Core Beliefs: Oneness of humanity and nature Founder: Lao-Tsu Sacred Text: Book of the Way Diffusion: East Asia
38 21. Feng Shui Rules in Chinese philosophy that govern the spatial arrangement and orientation in relation to patterns of yin and yang and the flow of energy (qi).
39 22. Confucianism Originated: In China about 2500 years ago Core Belief: Real meaning of life lays in the present Founder: Confucius Sacred Text: Confucian Classics Diffusion: East Asia, Southeast Asia
40 23. Islam Originated: On Arabian peninsula about 1500 years ago. Core Beliefs: Monotheistic religion, revelations Muhammad received from Allah, Five Pillars. Sacred Text: Qu ran Founder: Muhammad Sacred Sites: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem Diffusion: Across Arabian peninsula, across North Africa, into Spain and also east into Southeast Asia
41 Major split in Islam Split rose from a dispute over who should be the leader of Islam after Muhammad s death: 24. Sunni Muslims: Believed that the leader should be appointed by election and consensus. Around 90% of the Muslim population is Sunni. 25. Shi ite Muslims Believed that the caliph should be a descendant of Muhammed. Around 10% of the Muslim population is Shi ite.
42 26. Hajj The fifth pillar of Islam. The Hajj is a pilgrimage to mecca.
43 27. Kaaba: Cube shaped building in Mecca. Contains a sacred black stone believed to have been give to Abraham from the Angel Gabriel.
44 28. Minaret Tower attached to a Muslim mosque, having one or more projecting balconies from which a crier calls Muslims to prayer.
49 29. Sharia Law These are the Islamic laws. They are divided into two main areas pertaining to worship and human interactions/relationships.
50 30. Jihad Translates as "to struggle in the way of Allah. There are two commonly accepted meanings of jihad An inner spiritual struggle by a believer to fulfill his religious duties. Jihad also includes the idea of an armed struggle against persecution and oppression. Islamic extremists have declared an Islamic holy war against the West
51 31. Judaism Originated: In Southwest Asia about 4000 years ago. Core Beliefs: First major monotheistic religion, covenant between God (one God) and Abraham (the chosen people) Sacred Text: Torah Founder: Abraham Sacred Sites: Jerusalem (Western Wall), land between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River Diffusion: Into European cities during the Diaspora, into N. America during WWII, into Israel over last 50 years
52 32. Jewish Diaspora Describes the forced or voluntary dispersal of a people from their homeland to a new place. Originally applied to the dispersal of Jews, but is now applied to any large scale population dispersal. The original Diaspora occurred after the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in CE. Jews dispersed north into Central Europe and across North Africa and Spain.
54 33. Zionism The movement to unite the Jewish people of the Diaspora and to establish a national homeland for them in the promised land. Zionism supports Jews upholding their Jewish identity. Opposes the assimilation of Jews into other societies. Advocated the return of Jews to Israel. Seeks to protect and defend Jews from antisemitic discrimination, exclusion, and persecution that had historically occurred in the diaspora.
59 Western Wall, Jerusalem
60 34. Christianity Originated: In Southwest Asia about 2000 years ago. Core Beliefs: Monotheistic religion, follow teachings of Jesus to achieve eternal life Sacred text: Bible Founder: Jesus (son of God) Sacred Sites: Bethlehem, Jerusalem Diffusion: Into Western Europe, and then world wide during colonialism and after.
61 Two Major Splits in Christianity 1. Split into Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches in Protestant sect split off in 1400s and 1500s
62 First Split in Christianity, 1054 CE Western Roman empire = Roman Catholicism Eastern Roman empire = Eastern Orthodox
63 35. Eastern Orthodox Church Christian churches derived from the Church of the Byzantine Empire. Consists of a loose federation of Eastern European Churches, including the Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches. Acknowledges the primacy of the patriarch of Cnstantinople.
64 36. Roman Catholic Church The branch of Christianity headed by the Pope. Governed by a hierarchy with the Pope at the top and at the lower levels, bishops and priests.
65 37. Protestant Church Protestantism began during the Renaissance as a protest against the established Roman Catholic Church. Major Branches of Protestantism include; Baptist Churches, Lutheranism, Methodism, Pentecostalism, and Presbyterianism.
71 38. Sacred Sites of Jerusalem Jerusalem is sacred to three major religions: Judaism (Western Wall) Christianity (Church of the Holy Sepulchre) Islam (Dome of the Rock)
72 MONKS FIGHTING ILTRk
77 39. Intrafaith Boundaries: Boundaries within a single major faith.
79 The Conflict Political and Religious conflict in Northern Ireland. Lasted from Conflict was between minority Catholics and majority Protestants. Catholics wanted Northern Ireland to re-unify under the Irish government Protestants wanted to remain under the control of the British
80 1845 THE GREAT IRISH FAMINE Period of mass starvation, disease and emigration Potato blight destroyed 2/3 of the potato crop 1 million deaths about 20% of the population 1 million emigrate
81 Potato blight wiped out crops all across Europe and parts of the Americas So why did Ireland suffer so much more than any other area?
82 Ethnic Cleansing? Food, from 30 to 50 shiploads per day, was removed at gunpoint (from Ireland) by British constables and soldiers. Britain seized tens of millions of head of livestock, tens of millions of tons of flour, grains, meat, poultry and dairy productsenough to sustain 18-million persons. Starving victims were offered food in return for denouncing their Catholic faith and converting.
83 The Creation Northern Ireland Six counties in Northern Ireland, which are predominantly Protestant, maintain loyalty to England.
84 The Troubles Begin Civil Rights movement emerges in early 1960 s Minority Catholics protest discrimination in areas of housing, employment and policing
85 For the next thirty years the two groups would carry out a conflict of bombings, riots and assassinations.
87 41. Interfaith Boundaries: Boundaries between the world s major faiths.
88 42. African Transition Zone:
89 43. Israel and Palestine
90 44. Religious fundamentalism: A return to the basics of their faith found in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
91 45. Religious extremism: Fundamentalism carried to the point of violence. Found in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
92 46. Secularism Indifference to or rejection of organized religious affiliations and ideas. - Where is secularism on the rise and why?
93 Religious Landscapes in the United States
113 Diffusion of Islam into Europe large mosque in Paris, France
124 QOD A. Define Universalizing religion B. Define Ethnic religion C. Give an example of a universalizing religion and three reasons that it is considered universalizing. D. Give an example of an ethnic religion and give three reasons why it is considered an ethnic religion.
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