2 Religion Definitions A system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities. (Stoddard and Prorak) The belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, esp. a personal God or gods. (Google.com) A set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe. (Dictionary.com) The service or worship of God or the supernatural. (Merriam-Webster s Dictionary)
4 Key Characteristics of Religion Set of doctrines or beliefs relating to a god or gods. Structure or hierarchy of officials. Rituals (rite/ceremony) for: Birth Death Marriage Prayer Routine services on a Fri, Sat. or Sun.
5 Religions Are Divided Into Branches - A large and fundamental division within a religion such as Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox branches of Christianity. Denomination - A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations into a single administrative body Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist denominations of Protestantism Sect - A relatively small group that broke away from an established denomination.
6 Classifications of Religions Monotheistic religions worship a single deity. Polytheistic religions worship more than one deity, even thousands. Animistic religions belief that inanimate objects posses spirits and should be revered.
7 Where did the Major Religions of the World Originate, and How do Religions Diffuse?
8 Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Sacred Sites: Places or spaces people infuse with religious meaning. Pilgrimage: Purposeful travel to a religious site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site.
9 From the Hearth of South Asia Hinduism Originated in Indus River Valley over 4,000 years ago. Buddhism Originated in India as a reform movement of Hinduism. Founded by Siddhartha Gautama or the Buddha in the 5 th century B.C.E.
10 Hinduism No single founder. Rich in tradition. Worlds oldest religion that is still practiced. Third largest religion in the world.
11 What is Hinduism? Belief in a Supreme Being that encompasses everything in the Universe. Religious tradition that has been building on itself since before 3000 B.C.E. Varies a lot from sect to sect. No founder, no church establishment, no dogma.
12 Where do people who practice Hinduism live? Large concentrations live in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bali.
13 History and Sacred Texts Vedas have been passed down and are very ancient. Rituals, hymns, stories.
14 Supreme Being The Supreme Being manifests itself in everything just in different forms. Most worshiped forms: Brahma Vishnu Shiva
15 Caste System Varna Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra Untouchables Occupation Priests and religious officials Rulers and warriors Farmers, merchants, traders and craftsmen Servants of the upper castes and peasants Dirty (unclean) jobs: butchers, garbage men, etc.
16 From the Hearth of South Asia Buddhism Splintered from Hinduism 2500 years ago. Originated in a region from Nepal south to the Ganges River area. ***Anyone can achieve salvation and reach enlightenment***
17 Buddhism Fourth largest religion. There is no God in Buddhism, Buddha was just the awakened one. The goal in life (and rebirth) is to break free of the cycle of life and suffering.
18 Where do most Buddhists live? Mongolia, Japan, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, China
19 History of Buddhism Focused around Siddhartha Gautama, most commonly known as Buddha.
20 Born around 563 B.C.E. Left family to experience the world, on a quest for understanding Wandered for 6 years and experienced extremes. The name Buddha was given to him after he became enlightened and the name means Awakened One. He was just an enlightened teacher, he is not a god.
21 Four Noble Truths All Buddhists accept these Four Noble Truths
22 Ethics To refrain from taking life (non-violence). To refrain from taking that which is not given (theft). To refrain from sensual misconduct. To refrain from lying (speaking truth always). To refrain from intoxicants which lead to loss of mindfulness (specifically, drugs and alcohol). Monks have much more specific rules.
24 Shintoism A Japanese ethnic religion based on animism and shamanism. Was modified by introduction of Buddhismclosely related today-many Japanese practice both. Reverence for nature and the land-emperor seen as divine. Belief in kami or spirits Used by militants as a nationalistic religion in 1930s to unify the country in war time.
25 From the Hearth of Huang He (Yellow) River Valley Taoism Originated in China more than 2500 years ago.
26 Chinese Religions Confucianism-Mainly a philosophy of life founded by K ung Fu-tze in 6 th cent. BC Became a state religion of China-emphasized duty, social order and respect of others Daoism or Taoism the Way founded by Lao Zi (Lao Tsu), a reverence and harmony with natureeasily co-existed with Confucianism and Buddhism.
27 From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean Judaism Originated in Southwest Asia about 4000 years ago. ***First major monotheistic religion***
28 Judaism is an ethnicity as well as a religion. One can be born a Jew but not believe in the Jewish faith. Makes it hard to get a head-count of how many Jewish people there are. 14 to 16 million.
29 Moses was given the Torah at Mount Sinai. Abraham is known as the Father of Judaism.
30 Basic Jewish Belief Torah 613 commandments laid out in the Torah. Less than 300 are applicable to most Jews today. Torah is their holy text. (First five books of the Old Testament)
31 Practicing Judaism Many different sects of Judaism Orthodox: Adheres strictly to the Torah and Oral Law. Takes rituals very seriously. Conservative: teaches that Jewish law is absolute, but has always developed in response to changing conditions. Still participates in some rituals. Reform: adapts to today s society/culture. Takes rituals out of it.
32 Kosher Kosher mammals must have split hooves and must be able to chew their cud. KOSHER SEAFOOD MUST HAVE SCALES AND FINS. For something to be considered kosher it should also be prepared a certain way and approved by a rabbi.
33 From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean Christianity Originated in Southwest Asia about 2000 years ago. Began as a Jewish sect in modern day Israel/Palestine Founded around 33 C.E. Today there are about 2 billion followers. Over 34,000 different sects.
34 Christianity It has the largest number of followers and is the most widely dispersed with 1.6 billion or 40% of the population Roman Catholicism is the largest segment and is found in Europe, North American and Latin America. Protestantism dominates in Northern Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Eastern Orthodox is found in Eastern Europe, Russia and Ethiopia.
35 Jesus Christ Birth: Between 6 and 4 B.C.E. Messiah: The anointed one.
36 Matthew, Mark, Luke, John When were they written? C.E. The Gospels or New Testament.
37 First Split in Christianity, 1054 CE Western Roman empire = Roman Catholicism Eastern Roman empire = Eastern Orthodox
38 Protestant Reformation Martin Luther and the Ninety- Five Theses in Luther was upset about indulgences in the Catholic Church.
41 Religious Landscapes in the United States
42 From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean Islam Originated on Arabian peninsula about 1500 years ago.
43 Islam Islam is the 2 nd largest and fastest growing religion with 1 billion followers. It has 2 main sects or divisions-sunni, the majority and Shiite centered in Iran & Iraq. It is dominant in North Africa, Southwest Asia and extends into Central and Southeast Asia
44 What does the word Islam mean? Comes from the root word Salaam meaning peace Means submission to god
45 History of Islam Founded by Muhammad in 622 C.E. The last messenger of God, through which the Qur an was revealed. Muslims view Muhammad as the restorer of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus. The prophet and his people were persecuted against but conquered Mecca before his death.
46 The Diffusion of Islam
47 Muslims are followers of Islam Muslims believe that Islam is a complete way of life. Worship Allah. Many different sects and live all over the world.
48 The Qur an Sacred text of Islam
50 History of Islam Disagreement choosing a future Caliph. Islam splits into two parts Shia (Shi ite) Sunni
51 History of Islam This split continues to the present day and is a cause for many problems still to this day. o Majority of Muslims are Sunni. o Shia are concentrated in Iran/Iraq.
52 Five Pillars of Islam
53 1. The Shahadah An oath "I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God."
54 2. Salah/Salat Prayer ritual that must be performed five times a day. Before dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, evening Face the city of Mecca when praying (East) Use a special mat (rug) and have set motions Friday prayer should be done at a Mosque
55 3. Zakat Alms-giving Muslims should give at least 2.5% of their money to the poor.
56 4. Sawm Ritual involving fasting during Ramadan. No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset. Not even water!
57 5. The Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca during Dhu al-hijjah. Muslims are required to do this at least once in their lifetime.
58 Government Impact on Religion The Soviet Union: - Had an official policy of atheism - Discouraged religious practice - Drew boundaries for political control that separated ethnic groups in small areas
59 Israel & Palestine
60 The West Bank with the proposed security wall, parts of which the Israeli government has already built.
61 Identities are tied to Religion, but are deepened by: Economic- colonial experiences & activity spaces (segregation) Boal s studies in Northern Ireland demonstrate that solving a religious conflict is typically not about theology; it is about identity Northern Ireland
62 The Rise of Secularism World wide 4-6 billion adhere to a religion Separation of Church and State a new concept. Today in the Developed World religion has declined in importance. Secularism is most common in urban, industrialized nations. Anti-religious ideologies like communism discouraged organized worship.
63 Religious Fundamentalism & Extremism Religious fundamentalism A return to the basics of their faith. Can be found in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. Religious extremism Fundamentalism carried to the point of violence. Also can be found in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam
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Welcome, Rob Reiter My Account Feedback and Support Sign Out Choose Another Program Home Select a Lesson Program Resources My Classes 3 - World Religions This is what your students see when they are signed
Copyright CHAPTER 7: RELIGION APHUG BHS Ms. Justice Key Questions: Chapter 7 7.1 What is religion, and what role does it play in culture? 7.2 Where did the world s major religions originate, and how do
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