Class Period. Ch. 17 Study Guide. Renaissance- ( rebirth ) period of renewed interest in art and learning in Europe.

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1 Name Class Period Ch. 17 Study Guide Define all vocabulary terms: Renaissance- ( rebirth ) period of renewed interest in art and learning in Europe. Secular- Interested in worldly rather than religious matters. Urban- Having to do with a town or city Mercenary- A soldier who fights for money rather than loyalty to a country Diplomacy- The art of negotiating with other countries. Humanism- Renaissance movement based on the values of the ancient Greeks and Romans, such as that individuals and human society were important. Reformation- Movement to reform the Catholic Church; led to the creation of Protestantism. Indulgence- Pardon from the Church for a person s sins. Predestination-Belief that no matter what a person does, the outcome of his or her life is already planned by God. Annul-To cancel. Seminary- School for training and educating priests and ministers. Heresy-Belief that differs from or contradicts the accepted teachings of a religion. Define the following people: Marco Polo (pg. 585) A merchant from Venice who published a book on his travels to China and his friendship with Kublai Khan, which helped increase trade between Europe and China. Lorenzo de Medici (pg. 587) Powerful ruler of Florence who used his wealth to support artists, architects, and writers. Niccolo Machiavelli (pg. 588) Florentine diplomat who wrote The Prince, which gave advice on how to rule effectively. Francesco Petrarch (pg. 589) Italian poet and scholar who studied Roman writers and wrote biographies of famous Romans.

2 Dante Alighieri (pg. 590) Florentine poet who wrote the Divine comedy, one of the greatest poems written in the vernacular. Johannes Gutenberg (pg. 591) Developed a printing press that used movable metal type, which made it possible to print books quicker and helped increase the number of people who could read. Leonardo da Vinci (pgs ) One of the greatest Renaissance artists who dissected bodies to learn anatomy. He is probably most famous for his painting of the Mona Lisa. He was also an inventor, scientist and engineer. Raphael (pg. 593) - Known as one of the greatest Italian painters of the Renaissance. He painted many frescoes such as the School of Athens. Michelangelo Buonarroti (pg. 594) Famous Renaissance artist who sculpted and painted. He is most famous for painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome and his statue of David. Jan Van Eyck (pg. 594) A master oil painter of the Northern Renaissance. He was from Flanders and known for his extremely detailed paintings. Albrecht Durer (pg. 595) One of the greatest artists of the Northern Renaissance. He was a master of perspective and fine detail. He is best known for his engravings, such as the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. William Shakespeare (pg. 596) The greatest English writer of the Renaissance. He wrote tragedies, comedies, and historical plays. Some of his greatest plays are: Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and Macbeth. Desiderius Erasmus (pg. 599) First leader of the Christian humanist movement who was a scholar and clergyman. He studied ancient Christian works and strived to translate the Bible into the vernacular. Martin Luther (pg. 600) German monk who challenged and called for reforms against the Roman Catholic Church, inspiring the beginning of Protestantism. Charles V (pg. 602)- The Holy Roman Emperor who s lands not only included the Holy Roman Empire, but also Spain, the Netherlands, parts of Italy, and territories in the Americas. John Calvin (pg. 603) Founder of Calvinism who was inspired by the teachings of Martin Luther. Henry VIII (pg. 604) English king who ruled during the Renaissance. He was a very cruel king who married six times, executing two of his wives. He made himself the head of the Church in England after the pope excommunicated him, creating the Anglican Church. Mary I Bloody Mary (pg. 605) Queen of England after her father Henry VIII died. She tried to make England Catholic again and as a result, burned 300 people at the stake.

3 Elizabeth I (pg. 605) Sister to Mary I and daughter to Henry VIII. She took over the throne after Mary died. She restored the Anglican Church and became one of the greatest rulers in English history. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella (pg. 607) - King and queen of Spain during the 1500s who declared that all subjects should be Catholic. Ignatius of Loyola (pg. 607) Spaniard who founded the Jesuits, who taught, preached, and fought heresy against the Catholic Church. Catherine de Medici (pg. 610) - Mother of King Charles of France. She ran the government until he was older and was determined to keep the French kingdom strong for him. Her refusal to compromise with the Huguenots helped lead to a civil war between Protestants and Catholics. Henry of Navarre (pg. 610) Leader of the Huguenot forces and head of the Bourbon family, who later became King Henry IV of France. 1. Which civilizations inspired the rebirth of art and learning? The Greeks and Romans inspired the rebirth of art and learning. 2. Which country did the Renaissance begin? The Renaissance began in Italy. 3. List three reasons the Renaissance began in the country mentioned in question # 2. Three reasons the Renaissance began in Italy are: 1) Italy had been the center of the Roman Empire where ruins and art from classic Rome were present. As a result, Italians were reminded and inspired by these works of art. 2) Italy s cities had become wealthy by the Renaissance period, which meant that citizens could afford to pay artists to create wonderful works of art. 3) Finally, because Italy was divided into many small citystates, competition grew between them, which helped bring about the Renaissance. As a result, wealthy nobles and merchants paid artists to create beautiful works of art in order to bring fame to their cities. 4. Where did Italian city-states wealth come from? Italian city-states wealth mainly came from trade. 5. How did geography affect Italian city-states wealth? Geography affected Italian city states wealth because the long Italian peninsula provided most of the city-states with coastline and ports, which were used by merchant ships. The location of Italy was also perfect for trade, since the country is located on the Mediterranean Sea and near Spain and France on the west and was close to the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires on the east side. Finally, North Africa was a short distance to the south of Italy. 6. Name the wealthiest Italian city-state. The wealthiest Italian city-state was Venice.

4 7. What kind of work was the wealthiest Italian city-state known for? Venice was known for excellent shipbuilding. 8. Which city was the most famous during the Renaissance? The most famous city during the Renaissance was Florence. Where did its wealth come from? Florence s wealth first came from trading cloth, specifically wool, but then banking became the primary source of wealth for the city. 9. How were Italian city-states run? In the beginning, city-states were republics, but eventually, many city-states were run by one powerful man. These leaders had to negotiate with other countries in order to keep peace. 10. What were some of the advantages of Italian city-states? (pg. 616) Some of the advantages of Italian city-states were: 1) each city-state was able to have its own culture since they all had independent governments. 2) Cultural and scientific advancements were supported by most city-state leaders, which led to competition between cities and advancements in art and science. 3) The teachings and values of the ancient Greeks and Romans were preserved by city-state leaders. 4) Patriotism increased because citizens usually liked their city-state and were proud of it. Some city-state leaders were generous and provided for the needs of their citizens out of their own pockets. Some built churches, hospitals, schools and libraries. 5) City-states helped end feudalism by making merchants, as well as landowners, wealthy and ending the relationship between lords and vassals. 11. What were some of the disadvantages of Italian city-states? (pg. 617) Some of the disadvantages of Italian city-states were: 1) the common people were often mistreated by the rulers of some of the city-states, which led to the removal of the leader as a result of revolts and rebellions. 2) City-states were divided, which weakened Italy and made her vulnerable to invasions from foreigners. 3) Smaller city-states often had to hire mercenaries because they didn t have enough soldiers to defend themselves. Sometimes these mercenaries took advantage of the situation and took over the city-states that hired them. 4) Most citizens of city-states were poor and could not afford to pay the high taxes the government placed on them, which created a lower and upper class, but no middle class. As a result, citizens often revolted against the wealthy. 5) Wealthy families often fought for control of the city-states. 6) Some city-state rulers became wealthier through trade and banking, providing a life of luxury, while many citizens lived in poverty. 12. How did Humanism affect society? (pg. 591) Humanism inspired people to study the Greeks and Romans in effort to increase their knowledge, which led to many advancements in various areas of study, especially the arts. As a result, Renaissance artists were hired by wealthy Italian families and church leaders to create beautiful works of art based on humanist ideas.

5 13. What was the benefit of writing in the vernacular? (pg. 590) The benefit of writing in the vernacular was that more people could read the works of scholars like Petrarch, which led to the spread of Renaissance ideas. 14. What is the Northern Renaissance? (pg. 594) The Northern Renaissance refers to the art in northern European countries like Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, and the Netherlands. 15. What important method of painting was developed in Flanders? (pg. 594) Oil painting was developed in Flanders and became a very important method of painting. 16. What ideas led to the Reformation? Humanistic ideas which were spread to northern Europe led to the Reformation because they led to a movement called Christian humanism, which encouraged people to think for themselves and analyze the teachings of the Church. 17. Which event led Luther to becoming a monk? Luther became a monk after he was knocked down to the ground by a bolt of lightning. 18. What was Martin Luther worried about while teaching in the town of Wittenberg? Martin Luther was worried about the Church s problems and his soul while teaching in the town of Wittenberg. 19. Why was Luther against the Church selling indulgences? Luther was against the Church selling indulgences because he felt that the Church could not forgive sins in return for the purchase of indulgences. He believed that Christ was the only one who could forgive sins, not the Church and the pope. 20. How did Luther react to the selling of indulgences by the Church? Luther made a list of 95 arguments against selling indulgences by the Church and nailed them to the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral. 21. What were some of Luther s arguments with the Church? (See PowerPoint notes) Some of Luther s arguments with the Church were: 1) The Roman Catholic Church belief that a person would go to heaven through sacraments and good works. 2) The pope s authority. 3) The sale of indulgences in exchange for the pardoning of sins. 22. How did the pope punish Luther for challenging the Church? The pope excommunicated Luther for challenging the Church. 23. How did Luther s ideas affect how the peasants behaved toward the nobles? Luther s ideas inspired the peasants to rebel against the nobles who had greedily overtaxed them. 24. Why did Luther not support the peasants actions? He was afraid that if the peasants overthrew the nobles, disorder would occur due to the lack of a strong government.

6 25. What are the three main ideas of Lutheranism? (pg. 601) The three ideas of Lutheranism are: 1) faith in Jesus, not good works, brings salvation. 2) The Bible is the final source for truth about God, not a church or its ministers. 3) The church consisted of all its believers, not just the clergy. 26. What is Calvinism? (pg. 603) Calvinism, like Lutheranism believes that faith is more important than good works. It is also the belief that God s will is absolute and decides everything in advance. It is also the belief that God decides in advance who will go to heaven or not, also known as predestination. 27. Why did Henry VIII start his own church? What was the name of this church? Henry VIII wanted the pope to annul or cancel the marriage to his wife, Catherine because she had not given him a son, only daughters. When the pope refused to annul the marriage, Henry had the archbishop of Canterbury do it. As a result, the pope excommunicated Henry from the Church, which led him to declare himself as the head of the Church in England. The Church in England became known as the Anglican Church. 28. How did Calvinism affect England? (pg. 605) The ideas of Calvinism encouraged people to fight for Protestant beliefs and ways. They demanded that the Anglican Church give up Catholic practices for Protestant ideas and beliefs. People who pushed for these reforms became known as Puritans. They established their own churches, which was tolerated by Queen Elizabeth I, but not her successors, King James I and his son Charles I. They were persecuted, which eventually led them to leave England and travel to America for religious freedom. 29. How did the Church try to reform itself? (pg. 606) The Church tried to reform itself several ways. First, the pope called a church council at Trent, near Rome where Catholic beliefs were clarified. Next, the Church set up strict rules dictating how bishops and priests should behave. Seminaries were established in order to train new priests. Finally, a new order of priests known as the Jesuits was used by the pope to teach and preach to the people. He also used the Jesuits to fight heresy. 30. What was the Thirty Year s War? (pg. 611) The Thirty Year s War was the worst religious war of the Reformation period. It was fought between Protestants and Catholics during the 1600s in the Holy Roman Empire. It lasted 30 years and became a war of kingdoms. As a result of the war, France became one of Europe s most powerful countries and Spain was weakened.

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