Reformation. Part 1: Main Ideas 280 UNIT 4, CHAPTER 17. Form C. Write the letter of the best answer. (4 points each)

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1 Name Date CHAPTER 17 CHAPTER TEST European Renaissance and Reformation Form C Part 1: Main Ideas Write the letter of the best answer. (4 points each) 1. What kind of person represented the ideal of the Renaissance man? a. someone who enjoyed worldly pleasures b. someone who excelled in many areas of study c. someone who specialized in a particular field of study d. someone who supported and appreciated the arts without creating art 2. How did Italy s location help it become the birthplace of the Renaissance? a. Ideas could be spread easily by means of Italy s fleet. b. Italy was protected from the rest of Europe by the Alps. c. Italy had access to Roman ruins and ancient manuscripts from Constantinople. d. The bubonic plague had not reached the southern tip of Europe. 3. What was an important effect of the invention of the printing press? a. Gutenberg used his wealth from the invention to support artists. b. It led to the development of public libraries. c. It led to a renewed study of Latin and Greek. d. It increased literacy and the use of the vernacular. 4. Why was block printing more useful in Europe than in China? a. Chinese paper was difficult to print on. b. The Chinese had invented movable type but not the printing press. c. European languages had a smaller number of characters than Chinese. d. All of the above are true. 5. Which of the following was a major reason for the Reformation? a. Northern merchants resented paying taxes to the Church in Rome. b. The Church was threatening to excommunicate the king of France. c.thepopeinromeinsistedonspeakingonlylatin. d. Martin Luther said he could interpret the Bible better than the pope. 6. Which of the following was one of Luther s main beliefs? a. Men and women are naturally sinful. b. Christians needed to be baptized again as adults. c. Good works were required for salvation. d. All people with faith were equal. 7. What was the main reason for Henry VIII s split with the Roman Catholic Church? a. his religious beliefs b.hisdesireforamaleheir c. his treatment of Catherine of Aragon d. his unwillingness to pay Church taxes 280 UNIT 4, CHAPTER 17

2 Name 8. Which of the following was agreed upon at the Council of Trent? a. The Church s interpretation of the Bible was final. b. Selling indulgences was an appropriate practice. c. Local priests had to originate the process of excommunication. d. Church and state should be separate. 9. The Peace of Augsburg ended a war between supporters of which two groups? a. England and Spain b. Catholic and Protestant German princes c. Roman Catholics and Anglicans d. French Catholics and Huguenots 10. Which idea of Luther s most influenced John Calvin? a. Humans cannot earn a place in heaven. b. There was no hierarchy of believers. c. The Church should not sell indulgences. d. People did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them. Part 2: Map Skills Using the map, answer the questions on the lines provided. (4 points each) Reformation: Lutheranism and Calvinism 0 Anglican Calvinist Lutheran Roman Catholic Spread of Lutheranism Spread of Calvinism miles 50 N 10 W IRELAND SCOTLAND 1560 ENGLAND 1579 London 0 60 N North NETHERLANDS 1579 Rotterdam NORWAY 1536 DENMARK 1523 SWEDEN 1527 Wittenberg 1517 Baltic kilometers Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection 40 N W S ATLANTIC OCEAN N 10 W E PORTUGAL Loyola Avila SPAIN 0 Paris FRANCE Mainz Worms 1525 Geneva 1541 M editerranean HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE AUSTRIA Augsburg Trent Venice Florence ITALY Rome 10 E POLAND 20 E Black 30 E 11. During what period of time did Calvinism attract the most followers? European Renaissance and Reformation 281

3 Name 12. Judging from the map, about how many miles north did Calvinism spread from Geneva? 13. Judging from the map, why might Ireland have problems in the future? 14. How did distance from Rome affect a region s chances of becoming Protestant? Why mightthatbe? 15. Which of the three Protestant faiths shown here spread the least? Why might that be? Part 3: Document-Based Questions Introduction Historical Context During the Renaissance, scholars and artists began to seek other sources of inspiration beyond the Catholic faith. Many studied the classical past and adopted a humanistic outlook focusing on the potential and the achievements of human beings. The Renaissance ideal became a person who used his or her potential to excel in many areas, either as a "Renaissance man" or a strong ruler. In addition, art changed, becoming more realistic thantheartofthemiddleages. This was also due to the influence of classical models. Task: Discuss the view of human beings that developed during the Renaissance. A. Short Answer Study each document carefully and answer the questions that follow. (4 points each) Document 1: Excerpt from The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli, translated by Daniel Donno Hereaquestionarises[foraprince,orruler]:whetheritisbettertobelovedthanfeared, or the reverse. The answer is, of course, that it would be best to be both loved and feared. But since the two rarely come together, anyone compelled to choose will find greater securityinbeingfearedthanloved...menare less concerned about offending someone they have cause to love than someone they have cause to fear. Love endures by a bond which men, being scoundrels, may break whenever it serves their advantage to do so; but fear is supported by the dread of pain, which is ever present.... Returning to the question, then, of being loved or feared, I conclude that since men love as they themselves determine but fear as their ruler determines, a wise prince must rely upon what he and not others can control. 16. How would you describe Machiavelli s view of human beings? 282 UNIT 4, CHAPTER 17

4 Name Document 2: Excerpt from a letter to Sigismund of Austria by Aeneas Silvius (Pius II) Selected Letters of Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, translated by Charles S. Singleton Nothingcanhelpyouinguidingyourlifemorethanthestudyofliterature...Yetitis my understanding that you have thrown off your studies like some yoke which obliges me to try to induce you to take them up again.... We ought to study literature because it offers us models of behavior after which we can pattern out lives; knowing these will be helpful. And one must know literature deeply, not superficially, if real progress is to be made. Contemporary rulers are happy with a smattering of knowledge and leave detailed study to philosophers and jurisconsultants, just as if it were less important for them to know the principles of a good life. I entreat you not to fall into this pattern of thinking which will block your developing into a good man and a famous ruler. 17. What does Aeneas Silvius s statement imply about his view of human nature? Document 3: Two drawings by Leonardo da Vinci: Study of Hands Source: Study of Hands (c. 1485), Leonardo da Vinci. Silverpoint, 21.6 cm x 15.2 cm. Royal Library (RL 12558), Windsor Castle. The Royal Collection 2002, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 18. Judging from these drawings, how do you think Leonardo viewed human beings? European Renaissance and Reformation 283

5 Name B. Essay 19. Using information from the documents, your answers to the questions in Part A, and your knowledge of world history, write an essay on your own paper that discusses how Renaissance thinkers and artists viewed human beings. (8 points) Part 4: Extended Response Answer the following questions on the back of this paper or on a separate sheet. (10 points each) 20. Drawing Conclusions Which authority figures lost the most as a result of the Protestant Reformation? Which ones gained the most from it? Explain your answers. 21. Synthesizing Which aspects of the Renaissance contributed to the environment that made the Reformation possible? 284 UNIT 4, CHAPTER 17

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