WHII 2 a, c d, e. Name: World History II Date: SOL Review Day 1

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1 Name: World History II Date: SOL Review Day 1 Directions label the following empires in 1500 on the map below England France Spain Russia Ottoman Empire Persia China Mughal India Songhai Empire Incan Aztec WHII 2 a, c d, e Label the following trade routes: Silk road (Asia to Mediterranean) Indian Ocean sea trade Trans Saharan Northern European (black sea trade) South China sea and south east Asia What is the importance of trade routes: Exchange of and Regions China Information and product exchanged Middle east From all areas (Songhai) 1

2 Renaissance WHII 2 b Vocabulary to know: Renaissance: Humanism: Where did the Renaissance begin and where did it spread to? A Arrival (birth) of the modern world R Rebirth of ancient Greek and Roman cultures T The Renaissance started in Italian city- states. Why did the Renaissance begin in Northern Italy? I Italian artists (Michelangelo, da Vinci) S Sonnets, essays, play (Shakespeare) T The Renaissance spread to Northern Europe. I Individualism stressed (humanism) C Church corruption criticized (Erasmus humanist) Person Work they created painter/writer or philosopher Michelangelo Leonardo de Vinci Shakespeare Erasmus New artistic methods: 2

3 Reformation WHII 3 a- c Summary of the reformation: For centuries, the Roman Catholic Church had little competition in religious though and action. The resistance of the Church to change led to the Protestant Reformation which resulted in the birth of new political and economic institution Conflicts that challenged the authority of the Church: People of the Reformation People Views Actions Martin Luther What were Luther s views? theses Birth of church 2. Name of Luther s Church 3. John Calvin Predestination: Expansion of the Protestant Movement Calvinism King Henry VIII Dismissed the authority of the church Created the Church of England Divorced; broke from Rome & created his own church; took land and wealthy away from the Catholic Church in England Queen Elizabeth Anglican Church Tolerance for dissenters Expansion and colonialism Victory over Spanish Armada (1588) Makes the Church of England (Anglican church) the official church of Great Britain 3

4 Reformation had its roots in disagreements about theology, but led to important economic and political changes Effects of the Reformation Germany Princes in Northern Germany converted to Protestantism, ending the authority of the Pope in their states The Hapsburg family and the Holy Roman Empire continued to support the Roman Catholic Church war between Protestants and Catholics France Catholic monarchy granted Protestants( Huguenots) freedom of worship by the Edict of Nantes (later revoked (taken away)) Huguenots: Catholic Reformation Cardinal Richelieu changed the focus of the thirty year war from religious to political conflict Catholic church mounted a series of reforms and reasserted it s authority- Called the Council of Trent Society of Jesus (the ) was founded to spread Catholic Doctrine around the World Inquisition Court was used to reinforce Catholic doctrine Changing cultural values, traditions and philosophies Match the phase with the correct definition: Growth of Secularism Growth of individualism Eventual growth of religious tolerance Vernacular The role of the Printing Press on the Reformation the acceptance of the differing views of other people The belief that religion and religious bodies should have no part in political or civic affairs or in running public institutions Written in a common (one s native) language, like English and German ( not latin or Greek The pursuit of personal happiness and independence rather than the interest of the church Was invented by 4

5 Age of Discovery Summary: The expanding economies of European states stimulated increased trade with markets in Asia. With the lost of Constantinople in 1453, European nations fronting the Atlantic sought new maritime routes for trade. WHII 4 a- f Factors contributing to the European discovery of new lands G G G old lory od New technologies: Importance of Prince Henry the Navigator 5

6 Explorer Country Achievements Vasco de Gama Portugal The first European to reach India by water was he circumnavigated Africa Christopher Columbus Spain The first European to reach the New World- but thought he was in India! Land in the Caribbean Ferdinand Magellan Spain The first European to circumnavigate the globe ( he actually died in the Philippines but he crew succeeded) Hernando Cortez Spain Conquistador who destroyed the Aztec civilization Francisco Pizarro Spain Conquistador who destroyed the Inca civilization Francis Drake England First Englishman to circumnavigate the Earth Jacques Cartier France Explored the st. Lawrence river and set up Montreal, which became the basis of France s colonies in America How was Christianity infused into conquered lands? Characteristics Triangular Trade Europeans nations established a triangular trade pattern and exported precious metals from the Americans. Triangular trade linked Europe, Africa and the Americas. Slaves, sugar and rum were traded Columbia Exchange Impact Impact of precious metals export from the Americas: The indigenous empires of the Americas were conquered by the Europeans for their gold and silver The European nations, such as Spain use this gold to trade for goods from Asia Gold and silver flowed from the Americas and Africa, to Europe, then to Asia Marcantilism: Africa Americas Asia Europeans created coastal trading posts to trade slave, gold and other products African Exports Slaves, raw materials (ivory,gold) Imports Manufactured food from Europe, Asia and Americas Colonization primarily by small groups of merchants and trading companies Portuguese, Dutch and British 6

7 Ottomans, Mughals and Other empires The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire emerged as a political and economic power following the conquest of Constantinople in 1450 Originated in Asia Minor Expanded into southwest Asia, Southeastern Europe and North Africa Capital at Constantinople renamed Islamic religion as a unifying force that accepted other religions Trade in WHII 5 a- e The Mughal Empire Descendants of the Mongols, the Muslin Mughal Rulers established an empire in Northern India and traded with the European nations. Contribution of the Mughal Empire: Spread of Islam into India Art and Architecture- Portugal, England and the Netherlands competed for the Indian Ocean trade establishing Coastal ports on the Indian sub- continent Located in Northern India while southern India remained independent and continued international trade India s trade with European nations Southern India traded silks, spices and gems China Creation of foreign enclaves to control trade Imperial policy of controlling influences and trade Increased in European demand for Chinese goods (tea and porcelain) Japan Characterized by powerless emperor controlled by military leader (shogun) Adopted policy of isolation to limit foreign influences. European maritime nations competed for overseas markets, colonies and resources, creating new economic practices, such as mercantilism, linking European nations with their colonies. Why did European colonial powers adopt mercantilism? Commercial Revolution: European maritime nations competed for overseas markets, colonies and resources A new economic system emerged New money and banking systems were created Economic practices such as mercantilism evolved Colonial economies were limited by the economic needs of the mother country 7

8 Answer Key WHII WHII WhII 5 WHII

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