Renaissance and Reformation. ( ) Chapter 5

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1 Renaissance and Reformation ( ) Chapter 5

2 Renaissance Means rebirth Revival of Antiquity (Ancient Greece & Rome) Begins in Italy Coliseum Acropolis Italy

3 Characteristics Urban society = city states Secular or worldly view (paradigm) develops Recovery from horror of 14 th Century Belief in human achievement & individualism Largely reserved for wealthy upper class Men can do all things if they will

4 The Italian States Dominant force in Italy s economic, social, and political life Milan, Venice, and Florence = prosperous trading centers that help promote Renaissance spirit Duomo in Milan Gondolas in Venice Uffizi Gallery in Florence

5 ITALIAN CITY STATES VENICE- Link between Asia and Western Europe. It was an international power and was ran by trade merchants MILAN-Viscontes lead it until Francesco Sforza led a group of Mercenaries and took it over at that time. Milan was the primary trade route between the Alpine Mountains and the Italian Coast Florence- Dominated the Tuscany Region. In 1434 Cosimo de Medici took over and later his grandson Lorenzo assisted him in running Florence. Florence was the cultural center of Italy.

6 Medici Family 13 th - 17 th Century Florentines Attained great wealth via banking & trade industries Wealth = political power Greatest contribution to the Renaissance was in sponsorship of artists and architects Cosimo de Medici Lorenzo de Medici

7 Renaissance Society Middle Ages =society divided into 3 estates or social classes: 1. Clergy 2. Nobility 3. Peasants or Townspeople Similar structure during Renaissance, however, important change taking place

8 Nobility Only 3% of population but dominate European society: Hold important political posts Advisors to monarchs, popes, princes Land & business owners Intent on acquiring, holding, and keeping POWER

9 Power Machiavelli The Prince, (1505) One of most influential books ever written on how to acquire and keep political power Read quote, pg. 161 A political realist = The end justifies the mean Leaders should lead self-centered worrying about themselves and not about the people they are representing

10 Nobility Behavior Noble or aristocrat expected to fulfill certain ideals or standards Outlined by Castiglione (kahs teel yoh-nay) in The Book of Courtier (1528) 1. A noble is born, not made 2. Military skill & classical education 3. Code of conduct

11 Peasants & Townspeople By 1500: More and more peasants became legally free from the manorial system Artisans & merchants constituted townspeople, diverse urban setting Still a rather miserable life Quote, pg. 163

12 Family & Marriage Arranged marriages Dowry (sum of $ paid by wife s family to husband upon marriage) Father is absolute head of household Adulthood reached when children officially freed from father s rule

13 Humanism Renaissance marked by secularism or focus on the individual = Humanism Quote, pg. 164 Humanism based on study of the classics (Greek & Roman literary works) Humanists studied subjects such as: grammar, poetry, philosophy, history Emphasized interest in civic life serve mankind

14 Intellectual & Artistic Contributors Petrarch ( ) Often called father of Renaissance Gathered, recovered, and organized Latin manuscripts thus creating large collections or libraries for scholarly study Humanists stressed using Latin

15 Intellectual & Artistic Contributors Dante ( ) Famous work = Divine Comedy (soul s journey to salvation)

16 Intellectual & Artistic Contributors Chaucer ( ) Famous work = The Canterbury Tales (collection of stories 29 pilgrims journeying to the tomb of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury, England)

17 Intellectual & Artistic Contributors Christine de Pizan ( ) Famous work = The Book of the City of Ladies (denounced male scholars & writers that argued women, by nature, were unable to learn to level equal with men)

18 Intellectual & Artistic Contributors Masaccio ( ) Famous work = Known for fresco painting done on fresh, wet plaster with water-based paints Tribute Money

19 Intellectual & Artistic Contributors Brunelleschi ( ) Famous work = architect, best known for cathedrals, especially Santa Maria del Fiore Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore

20 Intellectual & Artistic Contributors Donatello ( ) Famous work = sculptor, best known for St. George and St. Mark statues in Florence St. George St. Mark

21 The Masters Leonardo da Vinci ( ) Renaissance Man (Well Rounded Person) Famous works = artist, painter, sculptor, inventor, scientist - best known for paintings Mona Lisa and The Last Supper Mona Lisa The Last Supper

22 The Masters Raphael ( ) Famous works = painter with countless achievements (Madonna paintings) School of Athens Sistine Chapel Madonna

23 The Masters Michelangelo ( ) Famous works = painter, sculptor best known for Sistine Chapel & David Sistine Chapel, Rome David

24 The Protestant Reformation Name given to religious reform that divided the western Christian Church into Catholic & Protestant groups Humanism had an impact on movement that demanded reform of the Roman Catholic Church Desiderius Erasmus criticized the Church in his work The Praise of Folly (1509) for emphasizing practices (rites) over principles

25 The Printing Press Gutenberg was the first European to use movable type printing, in around 1439, and global inventor of the printing press Critical component that contributed to spread of the Renaissance

26 Church Abuses Many moved to criticize Church for perceived abuses & corrupt practices Popes more concerned with political instead of spiritual matters Church officials gained much wealth while most Christians suffered Sale of indulgences (release from all or part of the punishment for sin) Johann Tetzel s sale of Indulgences

27 Martin Luther German monk on Oct. 31, 1517 presented list of Ninety-five Theses objecting to Church practices Believed man cannot do enough good works to earn salvation (original sin) He posted these on the door of the Castle of the Church of Wittenburg Instead, man is saved by God s grace by way of FAITH = Justification by Faith Catholic Church charged him with heresy & excommunicated him (1521) & declared him an outlaw via Edict of Worms 95 Theses

28 Politics of Reformation German princes mobilized behind Luther s teachings as a way to oppose Monarch rule of Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor Hapsburgs) Charles V forced to settle peacefully = Peace of Augsburg (1555) German states allowed to choose between Catholicism or Lutheranism

29 Spread of Protestantism Ulrich Zwingli priest introduced reforms in Switzerland, could not agree to alliance with Lutheranism Killed 1531 in war between Catholic & Protestant states in Switzerland Leadership in Switzerland passed on to John Calvin who held beliefs similar to Luther, however, he believed God had determined in advance who would be saved = predestination By mid-16 th Century, Calvinism replaces Lutheranism as largest form of Protestantism

30 Reformation in England King Henry VIII desired annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon (no male heir) Pope Clement VII would not grant Henry a divorce In 1534 via Act of Supremacy England broke away from the Catholic Church formed Anglican Church or Church of England

31 Reformation in England

32 Additional Protestant Groups Some protestants adopted practice of adult baptism Both Catholics and other Protestants assigned them the name Anabaptists Today, many protestants practice adult baptism and the Amish are the most strict of the Anabaptist descendents

33 Counter Reformation (Catholic Church Reform) In response to Protestant Movement, the Church was forced to address reform: Jesuits The Society of Jesus led by Ignatius of Loyola, swore allegiance to the pope and used education to spread message Council of Trent (1545) met off and on over 18 years Reaffirmed both works and faith necessary for salvation Selling of indulgences forbidden Ignatius of Loyola Council of Trent

34 Spread

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