A. Italian City States

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1 Chapter 12 Old Ch. 14 The Renaissance and Reformation Spirit of the Renaissance *great achievements in arts *concerned with religion and other important issues A. Italian City States have students look at map page Many wealthy Italians became Patrons who supported the Arts (esp. Medici Family) 2. Lorenzo de Medici ruler of Florence supported perhaps the greatest Renaissance person - Leonardo da Vinci

2 B. Study of Humanities 1. Universities studied the Humanities added in the late MAs a. A. Theology, law, and medicine 2. In the Renaissance they added the Humanities a. Grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history People who studied these things were called Humanists. Their goal was to learn more about the world. They were able to do this by reading ancient text. Humanists, of this time, were also Christians and thought education was the key to an enjoyable and rewarding life (page read pgs). Today Humanists are not always religious people but can be

3 C. Recovering Classics 1. Frances de Petrarch of Florence, lived from , gathered many Ancient Manuscripts and began to look at how much had been lost. His work encouraged others to try to recover writings of the Classic World Does anyone or has anything happening recently, encouraged you to study the past? tell us about it. 2. Many people began looking to Monasteries for ancient text, and eventually they come to find not only extremely valuable works of writing but also some important Forgeries

4 D. Hand Book for Proper Behavior 1. Manuals? What is one? 2. The Prince by Machiavelli written for rulers, it basically said it was fine if you could stay in power by being generous and kind, but that it was much safer to be feared than to be loved and the end justified the means (He advised rulers to use a mixture of cunning, diplomacy, and ruthlessness. 3. The Book of the Courtier by Castiglione on how an educated Aristocrat should behave

5 E. The Renaissance in Northern Europe 1. Spread to Northern Europe slowly from Italy 2. Because of the different leaders in the areas of Northern Europe, the wealthy Patrons were Kings, Queens, and Nobles rather than Merchants and Bankers

6 E. The Renaissance in Northern Europe Similarities Stressed similar goals 1. Individual achievements 2. Classic learning 3. Creative spirit 4. People began to search for worldly success and continued to have strong Christian Faith Italy *studied classical works Differences use pgs N. Europe *studied early Christian works *looked to find a purer faith

7 Renaissance Pop 1 1. The word Renaissance has come to mean? 2. What merchant of Italy helped to start the Renaissance? 3. Many in the Renaissance used this to express themselves and their ideas? 4. Many in the Renaissance were still concerned with this, and allowed it to lead their lives. 5. Who has come to be looked at as perhaps the most famous Ren. Man? 6. People who studied things like grammar, poetry, history, art and others in the Renaissance came to be known as? 7. His work encouraged others to try to recover writings of the Classic World The Prince is a how to book written during this time who wrote it and what does it tell you how to do? 10. What is one similarity between the Italian Ren. And the N. European Ren.

8 II. Art and Literature of the Renaissance A.Classical Influence DaVinci: Mona Lisa, others Donnetello: lifelike sculpture and statues (the bronze David not the one we usually see) Brunelleschi: architect revived classic styles, getting away from the Gothic and going back to the Great Dome structures (cathedral at Florence) Michelangelo Buonanroti: architect St. Peters cathedral in Rome uses Brunelleschi s Revival of the Dome (the Statue of David)

9 B. New Techniques in Art 1. Tried to show world realistically a. Giotto shading and dark light to add feeling to his drawings and paintings (let s do it Draw Mr. E do your best, draw with shading try to make it like they would at this time realistic - in binder # 28 My Ren Art in binder or possibly drawing partners) b. Later perspective with depth distance and 3 dimensional perspective become important (lets add backgrounds to give our picture depth) c. Flanders (Netherlands / Belgium area) made Renaissance contributions by improving paints oil based paints: dried slower and was easier to blend

10 1. C. Great Italian Artists 3 Dominate late 1400s early 1500s 1. Leonardo Da Vinci 2. Michelangelo 3. Raphael (have students use page 386 to make important observations about each artist) 1. Fascinated with Flight 2. Knowledge of Anatomy 3. Painter 2. Dissected human/animals Studied the human Figure Used Bright 3. Most work of his lost Musician, Painter, and Colors 4. Mona Lisa Architect Painted pictures 5. Last Supper David Virgin Mary Sistine Chapel Baby Jesus Discuss and Do Mindmap and Discuss

11 More on Michelangelo and Da Vinci Read Ch. 12 Sec 1 on the Sistine Chapel on Pg 374 Give Ch. 12 Sec 1 Terms one word to one sentence/term or draw small picture to help you remember Read Ch. 12 Sec 2 on Da Vinci pg 388 and discuss

12 D. Renaissance Writers used Latin and Vernacular 1. Petrach (Italian) love poems called Sonnets Inspired by Lauren (can you think of any famous love poems) 2. Giovanni Boccaccio Decameror 100 stories told by 7 women and 3 men who fled from the Plague and tell tales of Knights and other Medieval Figures 3. Francis Rabelais (French) started as a monk but believed the Church and education needed reform created 2 famous characters Gargantua The Giant and his son Pantagruel to push his beliefs

13 D. Renaissance Writers 4. Cervantes (Spanish) many adventures as a Spanish soldier, apparently captured by Pirates, held as a slave in North Africa for 5 years, created Don Quixote, poked fun at Knights chivalry and all his comic adventures 5. William Shakespeare poet and playwright, English brought new ideas to literature, 100s of new words, many plays were performed at Globe Theatre in London III. Changes: Big Ones * The poor who work with their hands and have not the time to cultivate their minds they are incapable of it. Only men of Noble Birth can obtain perfection. - Lorenzo de Medici

14 A. Introduction of Printing s Europeans learned how to make paper from Arabs (who had learned from the Chinese) s greatly increase number of books s - many explorers and discoverers 4. German s develop movable type press pieces of metal with letters which could be moved 5. Johann Gutenberg Mainz, Germany 1455 Bible Revolutionalized the world of learning 1. Ideas spread rapidly 2. Religious topics 3.? Topics 4. Medicine, philosophy, and politics

15 B. Everyday Life 1. Changes from Medieval Europe to Renaissance Europe a. Manors extended family towns and cities Nuclear Families b. Businesses, 2 or more families pooled resources and became partners c. Farmers new types of food (changing diet) 1. Meat 2. Fruit 3. Cheese and butter

16 C. Women In Renaissance 1. Main responsibility at home 2. Servants of wealthy households 3. Earned money as spinners, and weavers although most in the clothing industry were men 4. Governing sometimes was done by women a. Queen Isabella of Spain b. Catherine de Medici c. others Give terms Sec. 2 one word to one sentence/term or draw small picture to help you remember

17 Books Recap Authors of the Ren, and their work? 7. Guttenberg why is he famous? 8. In the 1400s, this greatly increased the number of books available. 9. One of a few famous women of the Ren? 10. Where I would catch a Shakespearian Play in England

18 IV. Beginnings of the Reformation A. Need for Reform 1. Babylonian captivity and the Great Schism hurt the power and prestige's of the Church (refresher) 2. Pope had to spend money in wars to protect the Papal States 3. Church had become very worldly 4. Sale of Indulgencies payments for sins so you would not have to spend so much time in purgatory after death

19 B. Protesters and Reformers 1. Girolamo Savorola Florence condemned Church immortality and urged the Church to resist worldly temptations executed for heresy 2. Martin Luther read Luther s Challenge and the Impact of his Reforms page importance's of each section Luther s Challenge 1. Person can get salvation from God whether or not they did good deeds 2. German Monk: Taught Bible Studies reform that splits Roman Catholic Church 4. Posted 95 Thesis (Complaints) on Church Door sale of indulgences, and maybe priests and religious leaders could be wrong, and perhaps allowed to marry 5. Disagreed w/ pope = was excommunicated Impact of Luther s Reform 1. Starts Lutheran Church 2. Wins widespread support 3. Translated bible into German so regular people could read. 4. Some peasants ok, others protest 5. Made it so don t have to pay taxes to Roman Catholic Church

20 V. Other Challenges to the Catholic Church A. The Spread of Protestant Ideas 1. Ulrich Zwigli (Switzerland) priest while M. Luther is in Europe abolishes the Catholic Mass, confessions, and the sale of indulgencies, and allowed priests to marry. He believed that a good pastor could teach and give sermons just as well as a priests ideas spread to many parts of Switzerland. John Calvin, the University of Paris devoted his life to religion. Calvinists follow his ideas that stem somewhat from many of Martin Luther s

21 A little on John Calvin and the Calvinists a. Published the Institutes of Christian Religion - which outlined the beliefs of protestant Christianity b. Rejected the Idea that good works alone will get one into heaven c. Believed in predestination god has already chosen who will be saved. Also believed in conversion in which one should follow God and receive his saving grace d. Converted many in the Netherlands e. Ones life should be lived simply and work hard f. Other groups branch off of his teachings French Huguenots and English Puritans Biblical Christianity 3. Anabaptist later Baptists believe that one cannot be baptized as a child they must understand and be able to except Jesus and the Christian faith for themselves. 4. Many Protestant and Non-denominational churches use some of these ideas in their teachings today.

22 B. Henry VIII 1. At first, he got along very well with pope and Catholic religion. 2. He asked the pope for a marriage annulment (divorce) from Catherine Argon because she had not given him a son (important to have male heir Mary Tudor, female) 3. Pope Clement VII refused 4. So Henry VIII broke away, and became himself the head of the English church and got the Archbishop of Canterbury pretty much the head religious guy of England to annul his marriage. VS

23 5. Act of Supremacy 1534, Henry becomes church head after doing a few things to discredit the Catholic Church. 6. Henry starts the Anglican Church Many Catholic teachings are kept but priests were allowed to marry and were told to use the English Translation of the Bible not the Roman Catholic Version.

24 C. A Protestant Nation 1. After the Death of Henry, Mary Tudor will become queen from , Mary marries King Phillip II of Spain, and she turns the nation back to Catholic persecutes (tortures) many who disagree with her. 2. After Mary dies in 1558, Elizabeth I takes a middle road she once again allowed England to be more protestant, but she was more of a separatist (church, and state), anyone who disagreed with her was persecuted whether Protestant or Catholic.

25 D. The Catholic Reformation 1. Movement to reform the Catholic Church and fight the growing Protestant Movement 2. Pope Paul III, Council of Trent , a. Leads to a call for better training of priests. b. Reform for church finances c. As a result of the Council, the Catholic Church ended many of the abuses that Luther and others Protestant reformers had criticized. 3. New religious orders. a. Ignatius Loyola formed the Society of Jesus and wrote Spiritual Exercises (Manual that taught strict religious discipline) b. The Society of Jesus eventually becomes the Jesuits and they swore absolute obedience to the Pope They traveled to many places and won many converts.

26 4. Other things the Catholic Church does to Reform itself. a. Revived the Inquisition esp. in Spain Portugal and Italy. b. Printed a list of Books which were Forbidden by the church. c. By the 1600s Protestants had made few gains and the lines between Catholic and Protestant Europe have remained largely the same since. Draw and Label religious areas of Europe about 1600s, use pg 399 If time Inquisition Doc.

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