European Renaissance and Reformation

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1 Date CHAPTER 1 Form B CHAPTER TEST European Renaissance and Reformation Part 1: Main Ideas If the statement is true, write true on the line. If it is false, change the underlined word or words to make it true. (4 points each) Example: In 1559, the Anglican Church became the official church of France. England 1. Utopia, thetitleofabookbythomas More, has come to mean an ideal place. 2. The Renaissance in northern Europe lagged behind the Renaissance in Italy because of the bubonic plague. 3. When Jerusalem fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, scholars fled to Rome with ancient Greek manuscripts. 4. The Spanish Armada was defeated by England s navy during the reign of Henry VIII. 5. During the Renaissance, artists were often supported by wealthy people known as humanists. 6. Gutenberg s invention of the vernacular made possible the quick spread of ideas. 7. To set aside a marriage as having not been legal is to recant the marriage. 8. The name Anabaptist is from the Greek for baptize again. 30 UNIT 1, CHAPTER 1

2 9. In England, the king was declared to be the head of the Lutheran Church. 10. The term Protestant comes from the name given some German princes who protested against joining forces with the pope against Luther s ideas. Part 2: Map Skills Use the map to choose the best possible answer. (4 points each) Reformation: Lutheranism and Calvinism 40 N ATLANTIC OCEAN 10 W Anglican Calvinist Lutheran Roman Catholic Spread of Lutheranism Spread of Calvinism miles kilometers Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection W S N E PORTUGAL 50 N Loyola Avila SPAIN 10 W IRELAND 0 SCOTLAND 1560 ENGLAND 1579 London Paris FRANCE 0 60 N North NETHERLANDS 1579 Rotterdam Mainz Worms 1525 Geneva 1541 M editerranean NORWAY 1536 DENMARK 1523 Wittenberg 1517 Trent Venice Florence ITALY Rome 10 E SWEDEN 1527 Baltic POLAND HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE AUSTRIA Augsburg 11. In which state were three different religions practiced? a. France c. Netherlands b. Holy Roman Empire d. Italy 12. What was the northernmost country where Calvinism spread? a. Norway c. Scotland b. Netherlands d. Poland 13. During what time period did Lutheranism win the most followers? a c b d E Black 30 E European Renaissance and Reformation 31

3 14. Judging from this map, how many miles east of Geneva did Calvinism spread? a. 350 b. 500 c. 900 d What geographic pattern can you observe from the way Catholicism and the Protestant faiths were distributed? a. Lutheranism was more widely distributed than Catholicism. b. The lands closest to Rome, center of the Catholic Church, remained mostly Catholic. c. People who lived in harsh northern lands were drawn to strict Calvinism. d. Eastern Europe remained completely Catholic because reformers did not cross the mountains. Part 3: Document-Based Questions Introduction Historical Context During the Renaissance, scholars and artists began to seek other sources of inspiration beyond the Catholic faith. Many studied the classical past and adopted a humanistic outlook focusing on the potential and the achievements of human beings. The Renaissance ideal became a person who used his or her potential to excel in many areas, either as a "Renaissance man" or a strong ruler. In addition, art changed, becoming more realistic thantheartofthemiddleages.this was also due to the influence of classical models. Task: Discuss the view of human beings that developed during the Renaissance. A. Short Answer Study each document carefully and answer the questions that follow. (4 points each) Document 1: Excerpt from The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli, translated by Daniel Donno Hereaquestionarises[foraprince,orruler]:whetheritisbettertobelovedthanfeared, or the reverse. The answer is, of course, that it would be best to be both loved and feared. But since the two rarely come together, anyone compelled to choose will find greater securityinbeingfearedthanloved...menare less concerned about offending someone they have cause to love than someone they have cause to fear. Love endures by a bond which men, being scoundrels, may break whenever it serves their advantage to do so; but fear is supported by the dread of pain, which is ever present.... Returning to the question, then, of being loved or feared, I conclude that since men love as they themselves determine but fear as their ruler determines, a wise prince must rely upon what he and not others can control. 16. What recommendation does Machiavelli make to rulers, and why? 32 UNIT 1, CHAPTER 1

4 Document 2: Excerpt from a letter to Sigismund of Austria by Aeneas Silvius (Pius II) Selected Letters of Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, translated by Charles S. Singleton Nothingcanhelpyouinguidingyourlifemorethanthestudyofliterature...Yetitis my understanding that you have thrown off your studies like some yoke which obliges me to try to induce you to take them up again.... We ought to study literature because it offers us models of behavior after which we can pattern out lives; knowing these will be helpful. And one must know literature deeply, not superficially, if real progress is to be made. Contemporary rulers are happy with a smattering of knowledge and leave detailed study to philosophers and jurisconsultants, just as if it were less important for them to know the principles of a good life. I entreat you not to fall into this pattern of thinking which will block your developing into a good man and a famous ruler. 17. Why does Aeneas Silvius recommend studying literature? Document 3: Two drawings by Leonardo da Vinci: Study of Hands Source: Study of Hands (c. 1485), Leonardo da Vinci. Silverpoint, 21.6 cm x 15.2 cm. Royal Library (RL 12558), Windsor Castle. The Royal Collection 2002, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 18. What Renaissance values do you think motivated Leonardo to make this drawing? European Renaissance and Reformation 33

5 B. Essay 19. Using information from the documents, your answers to the questions in Part A, and your knowledge of world history, write an essay on your own paper that discusses how Renaissance thinkers and artists viewed human beings. (8 points) Part 4: Extended Response Answer the following questions on the back of this paper or on a separate sheet. (10 points each) 20. Drawing Conclusions Basedonwhatyoulearnedinthischapter,whatarethreewords or phrases you would use to describe Martin Luther? Defend each choice in a paragraph. Think about: what he thought whathedid how other people reacted to him and his views 21. Contrasting How was the shift from medieval to Renaissance values reflected in the art and learning of the two periods? Think about: focus of interest painting, architecture, sculpture, literature 34 UNIT 1, CHAPTER 1

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