The Renaissance and Reformation

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1 The Renaissance and Reformation

2 What was the Renaissance? Renaissance = Rebirth in European history was a rebirth in art and learning Subjects the Greeks and Romans studied

3 Why Italy? Center of the Roman Empire Wealthy cities in the 1300s, they could afford to pay painters, sculptors, architects Italy was divided into independently run city-states which competed with each other This competition brought out the Renaissance

4 Renaissance Italy

5 What were the Famous City-States of Italy? Florence- most famous, produced many artists. The Medici family was Florence s richest. Venice- wealthiest. Sailors and shipbuilders. Used canals instead of roads. Genoa Milan Rome

6

7

8 The Rise of Italian City-States No ruler could unite Italy City-states fought many wars over territory They became wealthy through trade because of Italy s location Were linked to the east during the middle ages (Marco Polo), gained many new items Each was ruled by one powerful man Niccolo Machiavelli wrote how a ruler should maintain power The Prince 1513

9 Machiavelli believed rulers should do whatever it takes to maintain power It is better to be feared than loved

10 New Ideas & Art Section 2

11 Renaissance Humanism Humanism way of understanding the world that believed that the individual and human society were important Francesco Petrarch- studied Roman writers Dante Alighieri poet, wrote the The Divine Comedy Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales Johannes Gutenberg- develop the printing press

12 Renaissance Men Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo Buonarroti -Scientist & Artist -Dissected corpses -Famous notebooks -The Last Supper -Mona Lisa -Painted, sculpted and designed buildings -Sistine Chapel ceiling -The David -Moses Raphael Sanzio -Painter -Frescoes -The School of Athens

13 Da Vinci

14 The Last Supper

15

16 Michelangelo

17

18 Raphael

19

20 William Shakespeare Renaissance spreads north to England Writer of tragedies, comedies, and historical plays Introduced over 1,000 words to the English language Hamlet, Macbeth, A Midsummer Night s Dream, and Romeo & Juliet among others!

21 The Reformation Begins Section 3

22 Calls for Church Reform Reformation many wanted to reform the Catholic church Many believed the church taxed people too heavily and spent lavishly Indulgences sold by the church to reduce a punishment for sin

23

24

25 Martin Luther 1517 challenged the Catholic Church and led a movement known as Protestantism (to Protest) Believed that only faith = salvation Ninety Five Theses arguments against indulgences (Wittenberg) Excommunicated by Pope Created his own denomination (branch)

26

27

28 Lutheranism 1. Faith in Jesus, not good works brings salvation 2. The Bible is the final source of truth about god, not priests. 3. Church is all believers, not just the clergy

29 John Calvin Calvinism agreed w/ Luther but added some new ideas God decides everything in advance, including who will go to heaven and hell: Predestination To prove they were chosen people lived good lives and worked hard Kings couldn t run the church Became the Puritans Believed in theocracy-church led government

30

31 Catholics & Protestants Section 4

32 Counter Reformation 1500s & 1600s Catholic Church set out to defeat Protestantism = Counter Reformation Bloody wars were fought until 1648 Pope Paul III formed the Council of Trent to fix the Catholic Church Jesuits Society of Jesus, pope s agents to spread Catholicism Catholic kings sent missionaries to convert

33 Pope Paul III

34 More Counter Reformation The Thirty Years War-religious war of the Reformation The Spanish Inquisition Catholic Court used to combat heresy Protestants to the North of Europe, Catholics to the South of Europe Executed 2,000 Spaniards King Henry IV of France a Catholic king allowed French Protestants (Huguenots) to worship

35 France Inquisition

36 Henry IV Of Spain

37 Henry VIII King of England Ruled wives (2 divorces, 2 beheaded) because he wanted a son Pope refused his request for annulment, makes like the marriage never happened 1534 The Act of Supremacy declared the king head of the Church of England not the pope The Anglican Church

38

39 The Six Wives of Henry VIII

40 Back and Forth in England Henry s daughter Mary becomes queen in 1553 and restores Catholicism Arrested Protestants and had 300 burned at the stake, Bloody Mary After 5 years Mary died, her half-sister takes the throne--elizabeth Queen Elizabeth I restored the Anglican Church and became a great leader

41 Bloody Mary

42 END

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