Catholic Church Hierarchy. Clergy. Effects of the Renaissance. Objectives for Reformation: Causes 9/25/2008. Christianity

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1 Effects of the Renaissance Objectives for Reformation: Led to advancements in Science (Copernicus, Galileo) Led to world exploration (1492 Columbus sailed to the new world Art and literature is forever changed Printing press led to spread of literacy and education Led to questioning of Church teachings, which erupted with the Protestant Reformation of the 1500 s Lays the foundation for Modern History Trace the connection between the Renaissance to the Reformation. Define Reformation and Protestant Highlight the three primary individuals from the Reformation and their main beliefs: Martin Luther Henry VIII John Calvin Understand the Catholic Counter Reformation in response to the Protestants. Christianity Protestant Reformation Questions: Orthodox Russian Eastern/Greek Oriental Great Schism 1054 Roman Catholicism Protestant Reformation 1517 Protestants Lutherans Calvinists (Presbyterians) Anglicans (Pentecostals) Methodists Baptists What does it mean to protest What does it mean to reform What is the Protestant Reformation? Restorationists/Reformists Mormons (LDS), Jehovah Witnesses, 7 th Day Adventists Catholic Church Hierarchy Causes GOD POPE CARDINALS BISHOPS PRIESTS & MONKS LAITY - not in clergy Clergy Growth of power of the Pope over Europe The sale of Indulgences Printing Press Led to doctrinal differences between people and Church authorities Gutenberg Bible, Library of Congress, Washington D.C. 1

2 Protester # 1: Martin Luther Martin Luther ( ) German Monk Objected to sale of Indulgences 1517 wrote 95 theses and nailed them on a church door in Wittenberg, Germany. printing press spread his ideas quickly Martin Luther isn t... Martin Luther King, Jr. The "Theses Doors", which bear the 95 Theses in their original Latin form Doctrinal Claims of Luther Argued that Faith and not Works is more important for salvation Argued Bible was final authority on matters of faith, not church leaders or the Pope. Pope Leo X Martin Luther Continued 1520 Pope excommunicates Luther 1521 Diet of Worms Luther brought before Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) to denounce or reaffirm his views (clip) He was subsequently re-declared a heretic. Luther goes into hiding and translates the Bible into German. Several princes of Germany adopt Luther's Views Followers become known as Lutherans Luther's face and hands cast at his death in Luther's 1534 bible. 2

3 HW HW--read chapter 1 Section 3 and complete corresponding page in HW packet. Protestor # 2: Henry VIII ( ) English Reformation Initially resisted the Reformation but later rejected the authority of Rome. Eventually rejected the power of Rome and declared himself to be head of the Church of England Church of England became known as the Anglican Church. More of a political break with the church then a theological one. Why did Henry Separate the Church in England from Rome? Wife #1 Wanted an annulment from his marriage Pope refused Henry simply ignores the Pope, declares himself head of the Church, and grants himself an annulment. Catherine of Aragon Daughter: Mary Divorced Wife #2 Wife #3 Anne Boleyn Daughter: Elizabeth Jane Seymour Son: Edward Beheaded Died 3

4 Wife #4 Wife #5 Anne of Cleves Henry: She looks like a Horse Katherine Howard Divorced Beheaded Katherine Parr Wife #6 A mnemonic device for the fate of Henry's wives is: "divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived". Survived HW HW--Read Chapter 1 Section 4 and complete corresponding page in packet. Protestor # 3: John Calvin French Born, but studied and lived in Switzerland Believed in Predestination God has already worked everything out, thus all are either predetermined to go to heaven or hell Those who will be going to heaven will naturally have faith and do everything that honors God. Followers become Calvinists and gained a following in parts of Switzerland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Scotland. 4

5 Catholic Counter Reformation Movement within the Catholic Church to counter the attacks made by Protestants. Jesuits: Society of Jesus goal to spread Christianity while stopping the spread of Protestantism. Council of Trent: Meeting within the Church to reform corrupt practices within the Church and respond to doctrinal differences with Protestants. Ignatius of Loyola Review: Middle Ages ( ) Chivalry, Feudalism, Manoralism, Role of the Church Crusades, The Plague Renaissance Where, When, Who Art, Da Vinci, Michangelo Machiavelli and The Prince Protestant Reformation Causes: Printing Press, Indulgences, etc. Luther, Henry VII, Calvin 5

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