RENAISSANCE rebirth of Greek and Roman culture Art Literature Language Philosophy

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1 RENAISSANCE

2 RENAISSANCE rebirth of Greek and Roman culture Art Literature Language Philosophy

3 RENAISSANCE V. MIDDLE AGES RENAISSANCE Art for individual glory, fame Portraits, Autobiographies Rome/Greek learning Homer, Plato, Aristotle, Humanist-learning everyone should know Worldly Learning Exotic food, fabric Love life not offensive to God MIDDLE AGES Art for God Learning was not important Everything done to show respect for God Live poorly Wear rough clothing Eat simply

4 HUMANISM Humanism intellectual movement focused on human achievements Studied classical texts, history, literature, philosophy No limit to man s potential Religion does not have to agree with science and art Renaissance society was secular, worldly Wealthy enjoyed fine food, homes, clothes

5 CITY STATES Florence Venice Milan Genoa Exchange in ideas Most of Italy was still rural

6 MERCHANTS AND PATRONS Merchants (businesspeople) who were the wealthiest and most powerful class in each city-state. Earned money from industries like banking Used money to support and encourage the arts Patrons- individuals, families, or organizations that financially support the arts. De Medici Family Roman Catholic Church Wealthy individuals Because they pay, they have control over what is created

7 DE MEDICI FAMILY Most famous merchants and patrons Allowed for artists to focus on art without worrying about money Supported art, architecture, and science Famous artists they supported include Michelangelo, Raphael, Donatello, Leonardo da Vinci, and Galileo Galilei

8 Artistic Styles Change ART Artists use realistic style copied from classical art, often to portray religious subjects Painters use perspective, a way to show three dimensions on a canvas Realistic Painting and Sculpture The biblical David is a favorite subject among sculptors

9 CHARACTERISTICS OF ART Paintings Vivid Color Dramatic Appearance of 3-dimensions Realistic Both Secular and Religious subject matter, however this is the first time secular even is an option Sculpture VERY detailed Lifelike usually fully or partially nude to show details of the human body Dramatic

10 MICHAELANGELO The Pieta- Jesus after crucifixion laying in his mother, Mary s, lap David- 13 feet tall, considered to be virtually perfect Sistine Chapel- Took 4 years. 141 x scenes from the Bible containing 300 people. Includes the Creation of Adam.

11 LEONARDO DA VINCI The Last Supper Mona Lisa

12 RAPHAEL School of Athens- includes depictions of Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Pythagoras. In the library at the Vatican Sistine Madonna- Depicts various moods. Most famous are the angels at the bottom Pope Julius II- Became model for Pope portraits in the future The Transfiguration- Largest canvas painting, one of the last before his death

13 MACHIAVELLI The Prince How one ought to rule Better to be feared than loved Considered a masterpiece Political Philosophy Written in Italian vernacular opposed to Latin

14 NORTHERN RENAISSANCE Refers to Renaissance outside of Italy France- Many Italians moved to France including da Vinci. French architecture changed as well from gothic castles to beautiful chateaus Dutch- painting style and philosophy of humanism German- printing press created by Johannes Gutenberg, later the Reformation (spoiler). Printing press allows for quick and cheap book production= spread of books, ideas, learning spreads quickly

15 NORTHERN RENAISSANCE England- one of the last to have a renaissance- After Hundred Years War ends, cities begin to grow rapidly Elizabethan Era , the Golden Age Peace and prosperity Shakespeare- wrote many sonnets and plays about nobility as well as common people. Famous works include Hamlet, Othello, Romeo & Juliet, Macbeth, Taming of the Shrew, and A Midsummer Night s Dream. He is one of the greatest writers of the English language and is credited with adding over 3,000 words to the language.

16 RENAISSANCE LEGACY CHANGES IN SOCIETY Printing press makes information easily and widely available People become literate Maps and charts= new discoveries Rights and laws are written downknown to everyone Governing bodies (including the Church) come into question CHANGES IN ART Influenced by classical Greece and Rome Realistic portrayals of individuals and nature Art is both secular and religious Writers use vernacular Art praises individual achievement

17 REFORMATION

18 EARLY REFORMERS John Wycliffe ( ) Was against Papal authority and the Catholic Church being institutionalized Felt ministers should be humble, not have authority Followers called Lollards (derogatory term) Translated the Bible to English- few people could read, he felt everyone should be able to read the Bible In 1415 he was declared a heretic His views were precursors to the Reformation

19 EARLY REFORMERS Jan Huss ( ) Supporter of Wycliffe Also against the authority of the Catholic Church Excommunicated and later burned at the stake

20 CAUSES OF THE REFORMATION Church Authority Challenged Secularism, individualism of Renaissance challenge Church authority Rulers challenge Church s power Printing press spreads secular ideas Northern merchants resent paying church taxes Criticisms of the Catholic Church Corrupt leaders, extravagant popes Poorly educated priests

21 Luther s Teachings MARTIN LUTHER People can win salvation by faith in God Christian teachings must be based on the Bible, not the pope and Church traditions All people with faith are equal, can interpret Bible without priests

22 MARTIN LUTHER The 95 Theses Martin Luther protests Friar Johann Tetzel s selling of indulgences Indulgence a pardon releasing a person from penalty for a sin In 1517 Luther posts his 95 Theses attacking pardonmerchants Luther s theses circulate throughout Germany Luther s posting of the 95 Theses launches the Reformation a movement for religious reform Reformation rejects pope s authority

23 POPES RESPONSE TO LUTHER Pope Leo X issues decree threatening to excommunicate Luther (1520) Luther s rights of Church membership are taken away Luther refuses to take back his statements and is excommunicated The Emperor s Opposition Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor Edict of Worms (1521), declaring Luther a heretic Luther and followers begin a separate religious group Lutherans

24 PEASANTS REVOLT Inspired by Reformation, German peasants seek end to the social, political, and economic conditions (1524) Revolted against the upper classes burned castles and monasteries Looked to Luther for support- he did not believe in violent social revolution This assertion increased political support for his religious movement In May 1525, the German princes put down the revolt in a bloody confrontation, about 100,000 people die Germany at War Some princes side with Luther, become known as Protestants Charles V fails to return rebellious princes to Catholic Church Peace of Augsburg (1555) each prince can decide religion of his state

25 JOHN CALVIN John Calvin writes Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536): we are sinful by nature and cannot earn salvation God chooses who will be saved predestination Calvinism religion based on Calvin s teachings Calvin Leads the Reformation in Switzerland Calvin says ideal government is theocracy rule by religious leaders Geneva becomes a strict Protestant theocracy led by Calvin Example- only art form allowed it music- vocal only- no instruments

26 CALVINISM Calvinism Spreads John Knox brings Calvinism to Scotland, followers are Presbyterians Church governed by laymen called presbyters, or elders Calvin s followers in France called Huguenots Catholics massacre Huguenots in Paris (1572) King of France swayed by his mother- convinced him there would be an uprising Once the killing began it was virtually impossible to stop Paris killing= 3,000 France killing total= 70,000

27 REFORMATION IN ENGLAND

28 HENRY VIII Henry VIII - Tudor family dynasty- Catholic Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon- Catholic- gave him a daughter- Mary Needs a son to carry on the family name (heir) Wants to annul marriage to Catherine in order to marry Anne Boleyn Protestant Henry asked Pope to end first marriage, Pope refuses Divorce was against the Catholic Church

29 HENRY VIII Act of Supremacy- Removes power of Pope over England Creates his own church- Church of England- Anglican Church- with Henry VIII as the leader All tithes payed to the crown Monasteries closed, all money and land returned to the crown Thomas Moore, one of his advisors, is beheaded for siding with the Pope over the King

30 Catherine of Aragon- Mother of Mary. Divorced Anne Boleyn- Mother of Elizabeth. Beheaded- Tower of London, false charges. Jane Seymour- Mother of Edward. Dies days after child birth. Edward always sick, dies at a young age. Anne of Cleaves- Divorced Catherine Howard- Executed Catherine Parr- Widowed (outlived Henry VIII) HENRY VIII WIVES

31 Edward VI- Protestant Dies at 9 years old Mary- Catholic HENRY VIII CHILDREN Orders persecution of Protestants who refuse to become Catholic again Earns her title of Bloody Mary Dies Elizabeth I- Protestant Parliament approves Church of England Golden Age

32 CATHOLIC REFORMATION Catholic Church decides to meet to make changes to regain strength within their church Council of Trent Things that remained the same: Only Church could explain the Bible Faith and good works= salvation Pope highest authority Church ritual to remain in Catholic faith Pope could not marry Things that would change: Indulgences would no longer be sold More disciplined clergymen Seminaries to train clergy Jesuits to serve and spread the Church s teachings

33 Religious and Social Effects of the Reformation LEGACY OF REFORMATION End of religious unity throughout Europe- Catholic Church is unified; Protestant denominations grow Catholics and Protestants create schools throughout Europe= literacy important, more people want to learn to read the Bible themselves Status of women does not improve Political Effects of the Reformation Catholic Church s power lessens, power of monarchs and states grow- decline of Theocracy Theocracy- government controlled by religious leaders Reformation s questioning of beliefs brings intellectual ferment Late 18th century sees a new intellectual movement the Enlightenment

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