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7 Chapter Introduction Section 1: The Renaissance Section 2: Ideas and Art of the Renaissance Section 3: The Protestant Reformation Section 4: The Spread of Protestantism Visual Summary

8 The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and Values Between 1350 and 1550, Italian intellectuals believed they had entered a new age of human achievement.

9 The Italian Renaissance (cont.) The Italian Renaissance lasted from 1350 to It was a time period in which Europeans believed they had witnessed a rebirth of the ancient Greek and Roman worlds. Characteristics of the Renaissance: Led by an urban society, and Italian citystates came to dominate political, social, and economic life.

10 The Italian Renaissance (cont.) The Renaissance witnessed the rise of a secular viewpoint of wealth and material items. Occurred during a time of recovery from the disasters such as the plague, political instability, and a decline of Church power. Renaissance Italy, 1500

11 The Italian Renaissance (cont.) The Renaissance also stressed the individual ability of human beings. Leonardo da Vinci, emphasized the belief that individuals could create a new social ideal. Renaissance Italy, 1500

12 The Italian Renaissance (cont.) With the lack of centralized power, Italian city-states such as Milan, Venice, and Florence played a crucial role in Italian economics and politics. Milan s location as a crossroads between the coastal Italian cities and the Alpine passes made it a very wealthy state. Renaissance Italy, 1500

13 The Italian Renaissance (cont.) In 1447, Francesco Sforza conquered Milan using an army of mercenaries. Sforza created wealth for the government by creating an efficient tax system. Venice was located in a strategic position, as a trading link between Asia and Western Europe. It was led by a group of wealthy merchant aristocrats. Renaissance Italy, 1500

14 The Italian Renaissance (cont.) In 1434, Cosimo de Medici and his family came to control Florence using their wealth and personal influence. Cosimo s grandson Lorenzo de Medici later ruled the city. Powerful monarchial states in Europe were attracted to the wealth of the Italian citystates, and in 1494 Charles VIII of France occupied Naples in southern Italy. Renaissance Italy, 1500

15 The Italian Renaissance (cont.) The Spanish replied to the Italian cries of assistance and engaged the French in a 30- year war on the Apennine Peninsula. The turning point of the war came in 1527 when soldiers and mercenaries of Spain s King Charles I, who had not been paid in months, sacked Rome. Spain became the dominant force in Italy. Renaissance Italy, 1500

16 Machiavelli on Power (cont.) Niccolò Machiavelli wrote a book that influenced political thought in Italy and eventually all of Europe. In his influential work, The Prince, Machiavelli wrote about how to acquire and hold political power. He stated that a ruler must put the state first and not focus on moral principles. Machiavelli s rejection of popular Christian values would have a profound influence on the political leaders who followed.

17 1. The city-state that was led by a group of wealthy merchant-aristocrats was a. Rome b. Milan c. the Papal States d. Venice

18 The Renaissance was all of the following EXCEPT a. an urban society. b. an age of recovery from the plagues, political upheaval, and decline of Church authority. c. the end of poverty. d. a higher regard for the value of the individual human.

19 Who conquered Milan using an army of mercenaries a. Francesco Sforza b. Cosimo de Medici c. Leonardo da Vinci d. Mr. Burg

20 What does Renaissance mean a. Death to thy enemy b. Age of Art c. Rebirth d. Worldly

21 What three city-states played a crucial role in Italian economics and politics a. Milan, Florence & Three Rivers b. Venice, Florence & Carthage c. Milan, Venice & Spain d. Milan, Venice, and Florence

22 What was the central idea of Machiavelli s The Prince? A. Family dynasties are the most effective rulers. B. Politics should not be restricted by morality. C. Religion is necessary as a unifying force. D. Monarchies are the most effective means of governing. A. A B. B C. C D. D

23 Machiavelli on Power The Nobility Peasants & Townspeople Family & Marriage

24 Renaissance Society Changes in the social classes occurred during the Renaissance.

25 Renaissance Society (cont.) Despite being the minority, nobles dominated sixteenth-century Europe during the Renaissance. Nobles were expected to live up to certain ideals of European aristocracy. These ideals were expressed in Baldasarre Castiglione s The Book of the Courtier. Peasants continued to make up the bulk of European society but were gaining more independence during the Renaissance.

26 Renaissance Society (cont.) The growing numbers of townspeople were segregated into social groups. Patricians dominated the social and economic aspect of urban areas. Below them were the burghers, followed by the poverty-stricken workers and the unemployed.

27 Renaissance Society (cont.) The family bond provided a great deal of security to Renaissance-era Italians. As in many societies, a dowry was required in marriage contracts.

28 When did children become adults in Italian society? A. At age seventeen B. When they married C. When they graduated school D. When they were freed by their fathers in front of a judge A A. A B. B C. 0% C 0% 0% 0% D. D B C D

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30 The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and Values Humanism was an important intellectual movement of the Renaissance and was reflected in the works of Renaissance artists.

31 Do you think it is important to learn another language? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B 0% 0% A B

32 Italian Renaissance Humanism (cont.) A key intellectual movement of the Renaissance was humanism. Humanists studied grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, and history. Petrarch believed that intellectuals had a duty to live an active civic life and put their study of the humanities to the state s service. The humanist emphasis on classical Latin led to an increase in the writings of scholars, lawyers, and theologians.

33 Italian Renaissance Humanism (cont.) The Italian author Dante and the English author Geoffrey Chaucer wrote in vernacular, making vernacular literature very popular. Divine Comedy Describe each piece of literature The Canterbury Tales What language was it written in? The Book of the City of Ladies Who wrote it?

34 Renaissance Education Education during the Renaissance focused on the liberal studies.

35 Renaissance Education (cont.) The humanist movement led to changes in education. Humanists believed that individuals could attain wisdom and virtue by studying liberal studies. Physical education was also emphasized. Liberal Studies: history, moral philosophy, eloquence, letters, poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and music.

36 Renaissance Education (cont.) Physical education: javelin throwing, archery, dancing, wrestling, hunting, and swimming. The goal of humanist educators was to create complete citizens, not great scholars The majority of women received education in religion and morals

37 Italian Renaissance Art The Renaissance produced great artists and sculptors such as Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci.

38 Italian Renaissance Art (cont.) Renaissance artists sought to imitate nature through a human-focused worldview. Frescos created the illusion of three dimensions, leading to a new realistic style of painting. Michelangelo - The Prophet Zacariah

39 Italian Renaissance Art (cont.) Advances in understanding human movement and anatomy led to advances in Renaissance sculpture and architecture. The final era of Italian Renaissance painting (1490 to 1520) is known as the High Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci mastered the art of realistic painting and sought to advance to idealized forms of nature and humans.

40 Italian Renaissance Art (cont.) Raphael was a well known artist for his paintings of the madonna. His works reveal a world of balance, harmony, and order. Michelangelo was a painter, sculptor, and architect. His depictions of idealized humans are meant as a reflection of divine beauty.

41 The Northern Artistic Renaissance Northern European artists, especially those in the Low Countries, portrayed their world realistically but in a different way than did the Italian artists.

42 The Northern Artistic Renaissance (cont.) As opposed to Italian artists who perfected their work on the large, open spaces of Italian churches, Northern European artists painted on much smaller canvases. One of the most important art schools in northern Europe was in Flanders, one of the Low Countries.

43 The Northern Artistic Renaissance (cont.) Artists such as Jan van Eyck were among the first to use and perfect oil painting. Artists from northern Europe, such as German Albrecht Dürer, traveled to Italy to study the Italian standards and laws of perspective. The artists created detailed books of illustrations.

44 The Renaissance artists of northern Europe painted which of the following? a. frescoes b. church ceilings and walls c. detailed books of illustrations d. ships

45 All of the following are associated with painting during the High Renaissance EXCEPT a. Machiavelli. b. Leonardo da Vinci. c. Raphael. d. Michelangelo.

46 Paintings and sculptures of the Renaissance were more a. abstract. b. Chinese-like. c. realistic. d. simple.

47 Humanist educators of the Renaissance stressed all of the following EXCEPT a. liberal arts. b. rhetoric. c. physical education. d. practical tool skills.

48 Renaissance women were educated in which of the following? a. mathematics b. religion and morals c. rhetoric d. hunting

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50 The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and Values In northern Europe, Christian humanists sought to reform the Catholic Church, and Protestantism emerged.

51 Content Vocabulary Christian humanism salvation indulgence Lutheranism Academic Vocabulary precise ignorant

52 People, Places, and Events Martin Luther Desiderius Erasmus Wittenberg Ninety-five Theses Edict of Worms Charles V Bohemia Hungary Peace of Augsburg

53 Prelude to Reformation Christian humanism and Desiderius Erasmus paved the way for the Protestant Reformation.

54 Prelude to Reformation (cont.) During the second half of the fifteenth century, adherents of Christian humanism sought to reform the Catholic Church. Christian humanists believed that humans could improve themselves and society. Europe After the Peace of Augsburg, 1555

55 Prelude to Reformation (cont.) Desiderius Erasmus believed that external forms of medieval religion such as pilgrimages, fasts, and relics were unnecessary and that inner piety derived from religious philosophy was more important.

56 Prelude to Reformation (cont.) Reasons for Reform of the Catholic Church: Catholic Popes were more concerned with politics and material goods than spiritual guidance. Parish priests seemed ignorant of their spiritual duties.

57 Prelude to Reformation (cont.) An automatic means of obtaining salvation, such as the collection of relics, was being presented to the people. The use of indulgences was used to avoid punishment for sin.

58 Martin Luther Read about Martin Luther and write a 1-page report about his historical significance. Who was Martin Luther? Why did he break away from the Catholic Church? What were some of his historical accomplishments?

59 Martin Luther (cont.) Martin Luther was a monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg in Germany. He believed that humans would be saved by their faith in God and not by the good works done in His name.

60 Martin Luther (cont.) Luther only wanted to reform the church. He wrote a list of his grievances, known as the Ninety-five Theses, and copies were sent all over Germany. In 1521, Luther was excommunicated for attempting to get German princes to overthrow the papacy and establish a reformed German church.

61 Martin Luther (cont.) The Edict of Worms made Luther an outlaw, and his works were banned. Many German princes who supported Luther confiscated Church land, and a government church was established. A new religious service which consisted of reading the Bible, preaching the word of God, and songs, became the basis of the doctrine known as Lutheranism. Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith.

62 How did Luther outline his grievances with the Catholic Church? A. Edict of Worms B. Wittenburg Policy C. Ninety-five Theses D. indulgences A B A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% 0% D. D C D

63 Politics in the German Reformation Political and religious problems forced the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire to seek peace with the Lutheran princes.

64 Politics in the German Reformation (cont.) The Holy Roman Empire was ruled by Charles V who wanted the empire to remain Catholic. The empire included Spain, Austria, Bohemia, Hungary, the Low Countries, Milan, and Naples. Problems with the Ottoman Turks, French rivalry, prevented Charles from asserting military power over the Protestant Reformation in Germany.

65 Politics in the German Reformation (cont.) In 1555 the Peace of Augsburg ended the religious wars by accepting the division of Christianity. German rulers, but not the German people, could choose their own religion.

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67 The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and Values Different forms of Protestantism emerged in Europe as the Reformation spread, and the Catholic Church underwent a religious rebirth.

68 Content Vocabulary predestination annul Academic Vocabulary published justification

69 People and Places Ulrich Zwingli Zürich John Calvin Geneva King Henry VIII Ignatius of Loyola Trent

70 Divisions in Protestantism By the mid-sixteenth century, Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as the most important and dynamic form of Protestantism.

71 Divisions in Protestantism (cont.) In Zürich, Switzerland, Ulrich Zwingli was influential in reforming the Catholic Church. His Protestant movement spread through Switzerland. John Calvin was a Frenchman whose conversion to Protestantism forced him to flee to Switzerland. Calvin believed in an all-powerful God and the idea of predestination. European Religions, 1600

72 Divisions in Protestantism (cont.) Calvin s ideas led to the rise of Calvinism which soon became more popular than Lutheranism. Calvin worked to reform the city of Geneva, Switzerland. Geneva soon became the center of Protestant reform in Europe, and its missionaries were sent all over to convert the local populations.

73 Reformation in England For political, not religious, reasons, Henry VIII established the Church of England.

74 Reformation in England (cont.) King Henry VIII of England established the Church of England when the pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Henry s Church of England was very similar to Catholicism, although after his death English officials attempted to make it more Protestant.

75 Reformation in England (cont.) In 1553, Henry s daughter, Mary, came to power and attempted to restore Roman Catholicism. Her efforts, including the burning of more than 300 Protestants, earned her the nickname of Bloody Mary.

76 What were the results of Queen Mary s attempts to restore England to Catholicism? A. The people supported her decisions. B. It made people more pro-protestant. C. Mary was killed by Protestants. D. The pope supported Mary by sending an army to England. A A. A B. B 0% 0% 0% 0% C. C B D. D C D

77 Anabaptists For believing in the complete separation of church and state, Anabaptists were viewed as dangerous radicals.

78 Anabaptists (cont.) Anabaptists were Protestant reformers who did not want to give power to the state. Anabaptists believed: Religion should be voluntary; baptism occurred as an adult. All believers were equal; any member could become a minister. Separation of state and church; refused to bear arms or serve in military positions

79 Anabaptists (cont.) The religious and political beliefs of the Anabaptists seemed radical, and they were persecuted by Catholics and Protestants.

80 Reformation and Society Although the family became the center of life during the Reformation, the lives of most women and Jews did not improve.

81 Reformation and Society (cont.) With the rise of Protestantism came the end of celibacy for Church leaders. Women were subservient, and their roles were obedience to their husband and to bear children. Protestants expected Jews to convert to Lutheranism. When they refused, Protestants such as Martin Luther wrote that Jewish synagogues and homes should be destroyed. Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican Beliefs

82 Catholic Reformation Perceiving a need for a change, Pope Paul III steered the Catholic Church toward a reformation in the 1500s.

83 Catholic Reformation (cont.) The Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation was a Catholic Reformation. A Spanish nobleman named Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuits, a group who swore allegiance to the pope. Jesuit missionaries were influential in spreading Catholicism in Germany and the rest of the world.

84 Catholic Reformation (cont.) Pope Paul II led a reformation of the papacy, ending corruption either real or perceived. The pope, archbishops, bishops, and other theologians met irregularly at the Council of Trent to discuss Church matters and establish Catholic doctrine.

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86 THE RENAISSANCE in Italy and Northern Europe Milan, Venice, and Florence became centers of Renaissance learning and culture. Machiavelli s views on gaining and holding power influenced political leaders. Humanist education focused on liberal studies. Artists sought to portray the world realistically.

87 THE REFORMATION Begins Erasmus and other Christian humanists paved the way for the Protestant Reformation. Catholic teaching stressed faith and good works, but Luther believed that faith alone was sufficient for salvation. The Peace of Augsburg ended the religious wars and allowed German states to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism.

88 THE REFORMATION Spreads Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as the most important form of Protestantism. Henry VIII established the Church of England for political rather than religious reasons. Anabaptists believed in the total separation of church and state. Pope Paul III took steps to reform the Catholic Church.

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94 Chapter Transparencies Menu Chapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view.

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102 urban society a system in which cities are the center of political, economic, and social life

103 secular worldly

104 mercenary a soldier who sells his services to the highest bidder

105 dowry a gift of money or property paid at the time of marriage, either by the bride s parents to her husband or, in Islamic societies, by a husband to his wife

106 instability not steady; wavering

107 decline a change to a lower state or level

108 humanism an intellectual movement of the Renaissance based on the study of the humanities, which included grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, and history

109 vernacular the language of everyday speech in a particular region

110 fresco a painting done on fresh, wet plaster with water-based paints

111 attain to gain or achieve

112 style having a distinctive quality or form

113 Christian humanism a movement that developed in northern Europe during the Renaissance, combining classical learning (humanism) with the goal of reforming the Catholic Church

114 salvation the state of being saved (that is, going to heaven) through faith alone or through faith and good works

115 indulgence a release from all or part of punishment for sin by the Catholic Church, reducing time in purgatory after death

116 Lutheranism the religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicism in the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith

117 precise exact or sharply defined

118 ignorant unaware; lacking knowledge of

119 predestination the belief that God has determined in advance who will be saved (the elect) and who will be damned (the reprobate)

120 annul declare invalid

121 published printed for distribution

122 justification the process of being justified, or deemed worthy of salvation, by God

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