MARTIN LUTHER AND THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION

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1 MARTIN LUTHER AND THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION

2 I. The Protestant Reformation A. Abuses in the Roman Catholic Church 1. Popes constantly fighting powerful kings 2. Popes live a life of luxury a. Become patrons of arts like other Renaissance leaders 3. Roman Catholic Church raises its fees for marriage and baptism and other sacred Roman Catholic rituals a. Especially selling of indulgences

3 I. The Protestant Reformation B. Martin Luther s Protest 1. Martin Luther was a German theologian and monk 2. Became disgusted with Church greed and corruption 3. Wrote his 95 Theses (95 arguments) against the practices of the Roman Catholic Church and Popes

4 Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation

5 MARTIN LUTHER AND THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION

6 1. What is the main idea of the Protestant Reformation? 2. Who is the main protestor and what was the name of his written protest?

7 I. The Protestant Reformation C. The 95 Theses 1. written in 1517, posted on the door of Wittenberg s church 2. in it, Luther argued that: a. the pope had no real authority b. faith was the only way to Heaven c. the selling of indulgences was definitely wrong

8 I. The Protestant Reformation D. Indulgence Preaching Don t you hear the voices of your dead parents and other relatives crying out, Have mercy on us, for we suffer great punishment and pain. From this you could release us with a few alms [donations] We have created you, fed you, cared for you, and left you our temporal goods. Why do you treat us so cruelly and leave us to suffer in the flames, when it takes only a little to save us? - from a famous indulgence preacher, John Tetzel [1519] What strategy does John Tetzel (and other indulgence preachers) evoke (use)?

9 I. The Protestant Reformation E. Martin Luther vs. the Roman Catholic Church 1. copies of the 95 Theses was published across Europe 2. The Roman Catholic Church demanded that he recant (take back) his statements at the Diet of Worms 3. Martin Luther refused to recant and so was excommunicated in The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, declared Martin Luther an outlaw 5. Martin Luther hid at a castle in Wartburg for over a year 6. Martin Luther considered a hero by thousands of Germans

10 I. The Protestant Reformation F. Luther s Teachings: 1. good deeds not necessary for heaven; faith alone 2. said Bible was sole source for religious truth a. not Popes, councils, or cannon laws 3. denied the claim that priests, Bishops and the Pope had special powers a. all Christians had equal access to God through faith and the Bible 4. rejected 5 of the 7 Roman Catholic sacraments 5. banned indulgences, confessions, pilgrimages, and prayer to saints 6. deemphasized the ceremony of mass, and emphasized the sermon 7. permitted the clergy to marry 8. translated the Bible into German vernacular a. established schools where children could learn to read and write Why was universal education important to Martin Luther s goals?

11 1. An indulgence was a RC Church deal. 2. List one way Martin Luther s teaching differed from Roman Catholic Christian teachings. 3. What does recant mean? 4. Martin Luther DID NOT recant. That is why he is a boss. What was his reason/justification/rational/argument for NOT recanting? (Hint: humanist) Can you respect that?

12 I. The Protestant Reformation G. The Spread of Luther s Ideas 1. Northern Germany became home to Protestants 2. some became Lutherans for political reasons Peasant s Revolt attempted to end serfdom in Germany a. not supported by Luther; failed b. 10,000s died, thousands more homeless Peace of Augsburg a. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and princes reach agreement b. each prince and kingdom allowed to chose between Roman Catholicism or Lutheranism

13 I. The Protestant Reformation H. Other Protestant Reformers 1. Ulrich Zwingli from the Swiss city of Zurich 2. John Calvin from France a. agreed mostly with Martin Luther s ideas b. also preached Predestination i. idea the God long ago determined who would go to heaven and who would not ii. all people were either saints or sinners (try to be a saint )

14 I. The Protestant Reformation H. Other Protestant Reformers 2. John Calvin from France c. established a theocracy in Geneva (Swiss) i. a government ran by a church and religious leaders ii. believed they were the new chosen people iii. closed theaters, frowned on dancing, and fined foul language, fighting and laughing d. Calvinism spread to Germany, France, Netherlands, England and Scotland i. violence followed What problems might develop in a theocracy?

15 II. Reformation Ideas Spread A. throughout Europe, the Roman Catholic Church and monarchs fought to stop the spread of Luther s (and other s) protestant ideas. 1. however, Protestantism continued to spread

16 II. Reformation Ideas Spread B. Radical Reformers 1. as the Reformation grew, hundreds of other sects were created a. most of these new Christian sects were more radical then Luther or Calvin 2. Anabaptists rejected infant baptism 3. some wanted to abolish private property 4. most wanted religious toleration and a separation of church and state a. today, Baptists, Amish, Quakers, and Mennonites trace their history to the Anabaptists

17 II. Reformation Ideas Spread C. The English Reformation 1. leaders had been flirting with breaking from the Roman Catholic Church for 2-3 hundred years before Henry VIII s reign 2. Henry VIII wanted to end the Pope s and the Roman Catholic Church s control over England a. he did NOT want to break away from the Roman Catholic Church for religious reasons b. he broke away from the Roman Catholic Church for political reasons i. the story begins with marriage and divorce

18 II. Reformation Ideas Spread C. The English Reformation 3. Henry was originally called Defender of the Faith by the Pope 4. in 1527, Henry VIII asked the Pope to annul his 18-year marriage to his Spanish wife, Catherine of Aragon. a. he had one daughter, but no male heir (a son) b. the Popes had done this before, but the current said no 5. Henry VIII asked Parliament to approve his takeover of Roman Catholic Church possessions a Act of Supremacy b. many protested, many died 6. Henry married Anne Boleyn, but she too had only a daughter (Elizabeth) a. Henry eventually marries 6 times, but has only one son, Edward b. two of his wives are infamously beheaded

19 II. Reformation Ideas Spread D. The Church of England 1. between 1536 and 1540, Henry seized Church possessions and land 2. renamed the Catholic Church the Anglican Church a. however, changed very little of the Catholic faith b. allowed Bibles in English and rejected the Pope were the major changes 3. After Henry VIII s death, religious turmoil followed during the reigns of Edward VI and then Mary Tudor

20 II. Reformation Ideas Spread D. The Church of England 4. The Elizabethan Settlement a. became queen in 1558 (rules until 1603!) b. created a compromise an acceptable middle ground c. kept some important rituals of the Roman Catholic Church, but instituted many of the most popular Protestant reforms d. England eventually became a primarily Protestant nation

21 1. initial leader of the protestant reformation; from Germany 2. What was the title of Martin Luther s major attack on the Roman Catholic Church? 3. What does recant mean? 4. protestant reformer who established a religious government in Geneva; originally from France 5. What key term refers to a government that is lead by religion?

22 6. True or False: Throughout Europe, the Roman Catholic Church and monarchs fought to stop the spread of Luther s (and other s) protestant ideas, however, Protestantism continued to spread. 7. Why were Anabaptists considered even more radical than Martin Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin? 8. Why did Henry VIII want to break away from the Pope and Roman Catholic Church? 9. After the reforms of Henry VIII, what became the new name of the Church of England? 10. What is a compromise? Who, from this lecture, was called The Great Compromiser?

23 III. The Catholic Reformation (Counterreformation) A. Main Idea: As the Protestant Reformation swept across northern Europe, a vigorous reform movement began within the Catholic Church. 1. Headed by Pope Paul III during the 1530s-1540s 2. appointed quality humans to important positions

24 III. The Catholic Reformation (Counterreformation) B. The Council of Trent 1. started in 1545 and continued, on and off, for nearly 20 years 2. here is what the council concluded: a. they were right, and the Protestants were wrong b. Bible not the only source of religious truth c. crackdown needed to stop excessive luxury d. created more schools for better-educated clergy

25 III. The Catholic Reformation (Counterreformation) C. The Inquisition 1. Pope Paul strengthened the Inquisition 2. a church court established during Medieval times 3. used secret testimony, torture and execution to root out heretics 4. created the Index of Forbidden Books a. a list of books banned by the Church (obviously included Luther and Calvin s)

26 III. The Catholic Reformation (Counterreformation) D. Ignatius of Loyola 1. a Spanish knight of Crusading tradition 2. injured in battle; became a soldier of God 3. founded the Society of Jesuits a. recognized in 1540 by the Pope b. determined to combat heresy and spread Catholicism c. demanded spiritual and moral discipline and rigorous religious training d. became advisors to Catholic rulers e. established schools in Asia, Africa, and the Americas

27 III. The Catholic Reformation (Counterreformation) E. Teresa of Avila 1. Spanish Catholic mystic and eventual saint 2. wrote several important documents for the Catholic Reformation 3. believed in strict obedience and harsh routines "It is love alone that gives worth to all things." - St. Teresa of Avila

28 III. The Catholic Reformation (Counterreformation) F. Results of the Catholic Reformation 1. Rome and the Papacy were considerably more devout (loyal) 2. piety and charity flourished throughout Europe 3. slowed, but did not stop, the spread of Protestantism Lutheranism, Calvinism, etc) 4. Europe harshly divided between Protestant North and Catholic South

29

30 A. Main Idea: During this period of heightened religious passion, persecution was widespread. 1. Protestants attacked Catholics and vice versa 2. both Protestants and Catholics attacked radical groups like the Anabaptists

31 B. Witch Hunts 1. religious excitement led to a wave of witch hunting 2. witches were social outcasts; usually women 3. witches were used as scapegoats 4. 10,000s of supposed witches were executed between 1450 and 1700 a. mostly in France, and both Swiss and German states b. Salem Witch Trials happened in 1692 in Massachusetts i. 200 accused, 20 convicted and executed

32 C. Anti-Semitism during the Reformation 1. as we have seen, Jews are persecuted more in times if chaos 2. many Jews were forced to live in ghettos 3. some had to wear golden stars as identification 4. great efforts were made to convert Jews to Christianity

33 Long-Term Causes RC Church corruption and luxury Humanist urged a return to a simpler form of Christianity Strong national monarchs emerge Immediate Causes Selling of indulgences Martin Luther s 95 Theses Vernacular translations of the Bible The printing press (mass copies) Immediate Effects Peasants Revolt Creation of several new sects of Protestantism Christianity Weakening of the Holy Roman Empire Violence toward Jews Long-Term Effects Religious wars throughout Europe Catholic Reformation Inquisition strengthened Increased anti-semitism

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