Protestant Reformation

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1 Protestant Reformation

2 The Protestant Reformation Objectives: Students will learn about the criticisms of the Roman Catholic Church, and how this led to a religious movement called the Protestant Reformation. Discuss and analyze how the Protestant Reformation brought changes in religion and politics across Europe. Key Terms and People: Protestant Reformation, indulgences, Martin Luther, Peace of Augsburg, theocracy, John Calvin, predestination, Henry VIII, annulled, Elizabeth I Guiding Questions: What was the state of Catholicism in the 1400s? How did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church? How did Protestantism spread to other areas? What were the effects of the Reformation in England?

3 The Protestant Reformation

4 The Protestant Reformation is a religious movement to reform the church. People were concerned about the: -wealth and worldliness of the Church -financial corruption -abuse of power -immorality. This results in decrease in respect for priests, monks, and even popes. Heavy taxation also caused discontent. Some of the money was use to finance elaborate personal projects.

5 To help raise money for Saint Peter s Basilica, Pope Leo X approved the sale of indulgences. Indulgences were pardons issued by the pope that people could buy to reduce a soul s time in purgatory.

6 RECAP: What was the state of Catholicism in the 1400s? Corruption Taxation Worldliness Indulgences Disrespect

7 Catholicism in the 1400s

8 *DO NOT WRITE* John Wycliffe, born in England circa 1330, believed that the church should give up its earthly possessions. Church officials removed him from his teaching position. Jan Hus, born in Preached against the immorality and worldliness of the Catholic Church. Hus was excommunicated by Pope Gregory XII, later arrested, tried for heresy, and burned at the stake.

9 Martin Luther

10 1517 symbolically marks the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther posts his ninety-five theses on a church door: -Denied that indulgences had any power to remit sin. - Criticized the power of the pope and the wealth of the church. Written in Latin and were intended for church leaders. The work spread across Europe via the printing press.

11 God s grace cannot be won by good works, but by faith alone. Declared that the only head of the Christian Church is Jesus himself, not the pope. Individual Christians should be their own interpreters of scripture. Translated the Bible into German, which enabled many more people to read the Bible without the aid of the clergy.

12 In 1520 excommunicated Luther. In 1521 the Holy Roman emperor handed down the Edict of Worms, declared Luther to be an outlaw and condemned his writings. 1530, Lutheranismwas a formally recognized branch of Christianity. Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) moved to suppress Lutherans in Germany which was protested. This is how the term Protestant came into being. Peace of Augsburg-Charles V recognized Lutheranism as an official religion, and allowed the German princes decide the religion of their realm.

13 RECAP: How did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church? Range of punishments such as loss of job to death. 95 Theses Challenges other aspects of Catholic doctrine Translated Bible Did not stop spreading word after Edict of Worms.

14 The Spread of Protestantism

15 Ulrich Zwingli, a priest from Switzerland preached similar but radical ideas to those of Martin Luther. at its base. A theocracyis a government in which church and state are joined and in which officials are considered to be divinely inspired. Division between Zwingli s and Lutheran s followers erupted war, making Switzerland vulnerable to the Papal Army. Zwingli died in battle in 1531.

16 John Calvin preached the doctrine of predestination. Predestination holds that God knows who will be saved, even before people are born, and therefore guides the lives of those destined for salvation. Switzerland became a theocracy under Calvin s leadership. Calvinists viewed people as sinful by nature, and strict laws were enacted that regulated people s behavior. For example: church attendance was mandatory, laws governed meals, and clothing. Amusements such as feasting, dancing, singing, and wearing jewelry were forbidden. This strictness gave its followers a sense of mission and discipline.

17 John Knox was the voice for the Reformation in Scotland which laid the ground for the Presbyterian denomination that arose later. Another group separated itself by its beliefs about baptism. The Anabaptistsinsisted on rebaptizing adults, which was a crime punishable by death at that time.

18 RECAP: How did Protestantism spread to other areas? Zwingli in Switzerland spread his idea of theocracy. Calvin and predestination. John Knox and Presbyterian. Anabaptists. all capable because of the Gutenberg printing press

19 Protestantism in England

20 Reformation began with king Henry VIII (a Catholic). Henry s first wife, Catherine of Aragon, had borne only one child, a girl named Mary. Henry decided to have the marriage annulled, or declared invalid based on church laws, so that he could marry again. The pope would not agree to the annulment. Henry fell in love with Anne Boleyn, and takes matters into his own hands.

21 Henry summoned Parliament. Henry made himself the head of the Church of England (Anglican Church) as well as being king of England. Closed Catholic monasteries and convents. Redistributed much of the land to nobles which built public support for the split from the Church. Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII were married, and parliament declared Henry s marriage to Catherine null and void. Anne gave birth to a girl, Elizabeth. Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy, completing the break with Rome.

22 Henry VIII had six wives. Henry s third wife, Jane Seymour, gave England its male heir, Edward VI. He took the throne at age nine, Edward died before his 16th birthday. Henry s daughter Mary(Catherine of Aragon) became queen of England. Mary returned England to the Catholic Church. Hundreds of people were burned at the stake for their Protestant beliefs, earning the queen the title Bloody Mary. After her death, her 25-year-old half-sister Elizabeth (Anne Boleyn) became queen.

23 Elizabeth I was a Protestant and split England once again from Rome. Elizabeth was threatened by Catholics who plotted to place Mary, Queen of Scots, on the throne. Elizabeth persecuted Catholics. Firmly established the Church of England.

24

25 RECAP: What were the effects of the Reformation in England? Henry VIII created Anglican Church in order to annul first wife, and marry Anne Boleyn. Act of Supremacy Bloody Mary (Queen Mary I), Catholic Queen Elizabeth I, Protestant, Church of England (Anglican Church)

26 Branches of Christianity CHRISTIANITY Roman Catholicism Eastern Orthodox Lutheran Martin Luther Protestant Anglican Henry VIII Calvinist John Calvin Puritan Huguenots Presbyterian

27 The Protestant Reformation Map

28 Wrap Up What was the state of Catholicism in the 1400s? How did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church? How did Protestantism spread to other areas? What were the effects of the Reformation in England?

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