Protestant Reformation. Causes, Conflicts, Key People, Consequences

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1 Protestant Reformation Causes, Conflicts, Key People, Consequences

2 Conflicts that challenged the authority of the Church in Rome

3 Challenge to Church authority: 1. German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of the Church [All the popes were Italian]

4 Challenge to Church authority: 2. Church s great political power and wealth caused conflict. The Church was almost like a separate country.

5 Challenge to Church authority: 3. Church corruption and the sale of indulgences (forgiveness for sins) were widespread and caused conflict. "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs --John Tetzel (?)

6 Early Dissenters John Wycliffe ( , England) Translated Bible into English, handwritten manuscript Argued that the Church should be poor, as in the days of the Apostles Jan Huss ( , Bohemia) Influenced by Wycliffe Criticized Church wealth, power, and sale of indulgences Burned at the stake

7 Martin Luther ( ) German priest Believed in Justification (or Salvation) by Faith Alone Believed Bible was ultimate authority on Christian doctrine (not the Church) Believed all humans are equal before God, and do not need priests to have an individual, direct relationship with God

8 Martin Luther wrote the 95 Theses and posted them on a church door in Wittenberg, Germany. A thesis is an argument.

9 He was excommunicated Defended views at Diet of Worms Imperial Edict of Worms--in danger of execution He was kidnapped by Frederick the Wise, a friend, and hidden from enemies Translated Bible into German Vernacular = locally spoken language; not Latin

10 Martin Luther contributed to the birth of the Protestant Church. (Lutheran Church) Mennonite Seventh Day Adventists Unitarian Mormon

11

12 John Calvin believed in Single Predestination. Single Predestination=belief that God chooses (even before birth) those to be saved and those to be punished

13 John Calvin wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion Wanted to create strict Christian government in Geneva Established Calvinist (Presbyterian) Church Expanded the Protestant Movement

14 King Henry VIII (England) disagreed with the authority of the pope in Rome.

15 King Henry VIII divorced his wife and remarried, broke with papal authority. Henry s dispute with the Church was political, not religious. He argued the Pope had no authority over him. Initially, Henry had supported the Pope against Martin Luther.

16 King Henry VIII formed the Anglican Church the national Church of England. He took lands and wealth in England that had belonged to the Church. Westminster Abbey

17

18 Elizabeth I Second daughter of Henry VIII Inherited throne after her brother Edward VI, who died at age 15, and her sister Mary I, a Catholic. Tolerant of dissenters Promoted expansion and colonialism

19 Elizabeth I Commissioned 39 Articles (1563) established doctrine (beliefs and practices) of the Anglican Church Included compromise with Catholics to make them more accepting of Anglican doctrine Led Britain to victory over Spanish Armada (1588) Rise of Britain and decline of Spain-- as most powerful empire in Europe/world

20

21 Immediate Results Germany In the North: Princes converted to Protestantism ending papal (pope s) authority in their states.

22 Immediate Results Germany The Hapsburg Family (ruling family of the HRE Holy Roman Empire) remained with the Catholic Church, along with many people who lived in the South of Germany.

23 Immediate Results--Germany Conflict between Protestants and Catholics resulted in the devastating Thirty Years War.

24 Immediate Results--England Elizabeth I ended bloodshed and united the British Isles under the Anglican Church. Rise of the Reformation contributed to the growth of capitalism.

25 Immediate Results--France St. Bartholomew s Day Massacre After more than 30 years of war, Catholic Monarch (Henry IV) gave Huguenots (protestants in France) freedom of worship with the Edict of Nantes.

26 Immediate Results--France Cardinal Richelieu (adviser to French king) exploited the religious conflict of the Thirty Years War for political purposes. France s power grew. Cardinal Richelieu

27 A. Immediate Results Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation) Catholic Church mounted reforms to reassert its authority. The Council of Trent reaffirmed most Church doctrines and practices

28 B. Immediate Results Counter- Reformation Society of Jesus (missionaries called the JESUITS) was founded to spread Catholic doctrine around the world. The Jesuits were established by Ignatius de Loyola.

29 C. Immediate Results Counter Reformation The Inquisition was established to reinforce Catholic doctrine. (Used torture and death as a threat against heretics or nonbelievers. The Protestants did the same thing to Catholics.)

30 D. Index of Forbidden Books List of banned books that Catholics were told not to read Demonstrated the significance of the changes brought about by the printing press

31 Long Term Results Growth of secularism Skepticism about religious warfare Church s moral/political authority declined Nation-states gain power Growth of individualism Promotion of Education Eventual growth of religious tolerance Stage set for Enlightenment

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