The Renaissance

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1 The Renaissance

2 Renaissance Timeline 1517: Martin Luther begins Protestant Reformation 1558: Elizabeth I crowned 1588: English navy defeats Spanish Armada 1649: Charles I executed; English monarchy suspended : Henry VIII crowned c. 1533: Henry VIII splits Church of England from Rome 1564: Shakespeare born 1620: Mayflower lands at Plymouth Rock

3 What Was the Renaissance? The Renaissance (French for rebirth ) was a great revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe. It began in Italy in the fourteenth century and spread across Europe to England over the next 100 years. Interest in the classical learning of ancient Greece and Rome was renewed. The arts and sciences flowered. The human spirit of curiosity and creativity seemed reenergized.

4 Characteristics of the Renaissance People read ancient Greek and Roman texts to expand their understanding of the world. A humanist philosophy spread, focusing on human life in the present as well as on eternity. Printing made books more widely available. The wealthy, growing merchant class began to challenge the power of the church and the nobility. Scholarly Latin spread across Europe, aiding the sharing of ideas across cultures.

5 The Renaissance and the Arts Art flourished during the Renaissance. Church officials, royalty, and wealthy families served as patrons to artists such as Leonardo da Vinci ( ) Michelangelo ( ) Edmund Spenser (1552? 1599) William Shakespeare ( ) Alinari Archives/CORBIS A study for Leda and the Swan by Leonardo da Vinci.

6 Humanism in the Renaissance Humanists combined ideas from Latin and Greek classics with traditional Christian thought to teach people how to live and rule. They sought to answer questions about life What is a good life? and How do I lead a good life? to use the classics to strengthen, not discredit, Christianity Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More were two wellknown humanists who helped shape European thought and history.

7 The Invention of the Printing Press In the early 1450s Johannes Gutenberg, a German, invented the printing press. His invention transformed the way information and ideas were exchanged. Books no longer had to be copied by hand. Books became more numerous, available, and affordable. CORBIS

8 The Protestant Reformation began with Martin Luther in Wittenberg, Germany, 1517 and spread across Europe to England Martin Luther believed that religion should be based on a personal understanding of the Bible, not on the authority of the Pope and his bishops. gained momentum as the Catholic Church was criticized for corruption had a financial component in England, where the English objected to the financial burdens placed on them by the Vatican in Italy

9 Henry VIII (r ) split the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and declared himself head of the new church had six wives executed the humanist Thomas More authorized creation of the Great Bible the first official English translation of the Bible to be used in the Church of England created the Royal Navy

10 The Reigns of Edward and Mary Henry VIII was survived by three heirs; each ruled England in turn. Edward IV (r ) son of Jane Seymour crowned at age nine smart but sickly ruled only in name died of tuberculosis at age fifteen Mary Tudor (r ) daughter of Catherine of Aragon restored power of Pope and Catholic Church called Bloody Mary because she executed hundreds of Protestants

11 Elizabeth I (r ) daughter of Anne Boleyn regarded as a brilliant and successful monarch reestablished Church of England never married; known as the Virgin Queen patron of the arts Bettmann/CORBIS

12 Defeat of the Spanish Armada In 1588 King Philip of Spain assembled the powerful Spanish Armada and attacked England. England s Royal Navy destroyed the Spanish Armada. The victory at sea was a turning point in history. It ensured England s independence from the powerful Catholic countries of the Mediterranean clipart.com

13 Decline of the Renaissance When Elizabeth died, she was succeeded by her second cousin, James, the king of Scotland. James I (r ) loved literature and drama. He was a patron to Shakespeare and sponsored a new translation of the Bible. However, he was unable to resolve religious and economic concerns, and his lavish dress and court life offended pious and thrifty merchants.

14 Decline of the Renaissance Charles I (r ) succeeded James I, his father. Charles s troubles with the English Parliament sparked the English Civil Wars ( ), which ended in dissolution of the monarchy Charles beheading flight of Charles II, his son and heir, to France

15 Puritans in Power ( ) Puritans ruled England under the guidance of Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell was a shrewd ruler who led England to international prominence. Puritans closed down theaters from 1642 to 1660.

16 What Have You Learned? Match the achievement to the Renaissance ruler. Elizabeth I James I Henry VIII Henry VIII established the Church of England, separate from the Roman church James I supported the arts but offended the English with a lavish and costly lifestyle Elizabeth I united England so that it could achieve military victory over Spain

17 The End

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