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1 Bell Ringer Read Protestant Reformation: The Basics worksheet in your groups. Answer questions on the back together.

2 The Protestant Reformation The Division of the Church into Catholic and Protestant Denominations

3 The Protestant Reformation: Background - Spain 1492 Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile unite Spain. After uniting Spain, they drive out the Moors, a Muslim people from North Africa who had ruled much of what is now Spain. The Spanish Inquision Spain begins to torture people who are non-christian and non- Catholic in attempts to get people to convert. Muslims (The Moors), Jews (150k of 200k), and Non-Catholic Christians (like Anabaptist) are tortured, killed, and expelled from Spain.

4 The Protestant Reformation: Background - Desiderius Erasmus Christian Humanism - The philosophy of Christ that Christianity should show people how to live good lives rather than a system of beliefs that people should practice to be saved. The Praise of Folly (1509) humorously criticized aspects of society that Erasmus felt needed to be reformed. He singled out monks for special treatment.

5 The Protestant Reformation: Background Corruption in the Catholic Church Between 1450 and 1520, a series of popes, The Renaissance Popes, became more involved in politics than spiritual matters. The Renaissance Popes: Julius II (Warrior Pope) Sixtus IV (Nepotism) Alexander VI Church officials used their offices to advance their careers and wealth, and many local priests seemed ignorant of their spiritual duties, especially instructing the faithful on achieving salvation (forgiveness of sins).

6 The Protestant Reformation: Background - Indulgences The Sale of Indulgences - Church officials would sale certificates which granted indulgences, a release from punishment for sin. The sale of indulgences angered many people and led to a movement called the Modern Devotion. The Modern Devotion downplayed religious dogma and stressed the need to follow the teachings of Jesus.

7 1517- Martin Luther Luther posted 95 Theses on the door of a church in Wittenberg, Germany opposing the sale of indulgences. This action started the Protestant Reformation. When the Church would not change its actions, Luther called for some German princes to overthrow the papacy in Germany and start a German reformed church. Luther was excommunicated and charged with heresy. The Diet of Worms the trial of Martin Luther. The Edict of Worms - Luther was declared an outlaw by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

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9 Main doctrines of Martin Luther Justification by Faith A person is saved through faith alone. The Bible is the only source of religious truth. Protestants stress the need of people to read the Bible. Priesthood of the Believer People can have a relationship with God and do not need a priest.

10 The Rise of Lutheranism Many German rulers within the many states that made up the Holy Roman Empire seized control of Catholic Churches in their territories and set up state churches. The Mass was replaced by Bible readings, preaching, prayer services, and songs. Luther kept only 2 of the 7 sacraments, baptism and the Eucharist (communion).

11 A Mighty Fortress Is Our God A mighty Fortress is our God, A Bulwark never failing; Our Helper He amid the flood Of mortal ills prevailing: For still our ancient foe Doth seek to work us woe; His craft and power are great, And, armed with cruel hate, On earth is not his equal. Did we in our own strength confide, Our striving would be losing; Were not the right Man on our side, The Man of God's own choosing: Dost ask who that may be? Christ Jesus, it is He; Lord Sabaoth His Name, From age to age the same, And He must win the battle. And though this world, with devils filled, Should threaten to undo us, We will not fear, for God hath willed His truth to triumph through us: The Prince of Darkness grim, We tremble not for him; His rage we can endure, For lo! his doom is sure, One little word shall fell him. That word above all earthly powers, No thanks to them, abideth; The Spirit and the gifts are ours Through Him who with us sideth: Let goods and kindred go, This mortal life also; The body they may kill: God's truth abideth still, His Kingdom is forever.

12 Politics in the Rise of Lutheranism Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (who was also Charles I of Spain) wanted to keep all of his territory Catholic, but he faced other problems. He had a 20 year war with Francis I of France over disputed territory in the west. The Pope, Clement VII sided with France. He was attacked by the Ottoman Turks in the east.

13 Politics (continued) When Charles V did try to fight the Protestants (followers of Luther), the princes were too powerful to defeat The Peace of Augsburg. German states could choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism. Lutheran states were to have the same rights as Catholic states. This was NOT religious freedom - states, not individuals, were allowed to choose a religion.

14 John Calvin John Calvin was the most important reformer in France. Calvin was forced to flee from France to Switzerland when he converted to Protestantism. Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1536 Main Doctrine - Predestination. God is all-powerful and has determined in advance who would be saved (the elect) and who would not (the reprobate). The Consistory - council charged with tasks of governing a religious organization.

15 The English Reformation Henry VIII Elizabeth I

16 King Henry VIII of England Henry was married to Catherine of Aragon, but wanted a divorce when she had a daughter, Mary, but no son. Asked the Pope to annul the marriage, but the Pope refused. Broke from the Catholic Church and created the Church of England with himself at the head (Act of Supremacy of 1534) so he could get a divorce.

17 Hey I ve been there Hampton Court Palace

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21 6 Wives 1. Catherine of Aragon Divorced 2. Anne Boleyn Beheaded 3. Jane Seymour Died 4. Anne of Cleves Divorced 5. Catherine Howard Beheaded 6. Katherine Parr Survived

22 The Reformation in England under Henry VIII Although Henry VIII broke from the Catholic Church, under his leadership the Church of England remained close to Catholic teaching. Henry sold much of the church s land to wealthy landowners gaining wealth and political allies for himself. When Thomas More opposed the king s action, he was beheaded.

23 The Reformation in England under Edward VI and Mary When Henry died in 1547, he was succeeded by his nine year old son from his third wife, Edward VI. During Edward s reign, the Church of England (Anglican Church) became more Protestant.

24 Queen Mary When Edward died in 1533, Mary, Henry s daughter by Catherine of Aragon, wanted to return England to being Catholic. Bloody Mary burned Protestants as heretics, yet the people rebelled against this persecution and it made England even more Protestant.

25 Elizabeth I On Mary s death in 1558, the throne passed to her half-sister, Elizabeth I. She made reforms that became known as the Elizabethan Settlement. a compromise between Protestant and Catholic practices. Elizabeth restored unity to England; she kept many Catholic traditions, but made England a Protestant nation. She was known as the Virgin Queen because she never married or had children.

26 William Shakespeare and The Globe Theater

27 The Anabaptists Luther and Calvin saw a union between the church and state as important. These people, the Anabaptists, wanted the separation of church and state. To Anabaptists, the true church was a group of Adult believers who had undergone a spiritual rebirth and then were baptized (adult baptism). Anabaptist also believed in the equality of all believers.

28 The Anabaptists Anabaptist were seen by both Catholics and Protestants as dangerous radicals. Page 491 (An Explosion of Sects)

29 The Catholic Reformation The Catholic Church reformed after the spread of Protestantism. This Catholic Reformation was done by The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) Reform of the papacy The Council of Trent.

30 Society of Jesus The Jesuits were created by a Spanish nobleman, Ignatius of Loyola in All Jesuits take a special vow of absolute loyalty to the pope. Jesuits used education and missionaries to restore Catholicism to parts of Germany and Eastern Europe.

31 Papal Reform Pope Paul III appointed a reform Commission in The commission blamed the Church s problems on the corrupt policies of past popes.

32 The Council of Trent Pope Paul III called for the leaders of the Church to meet in the city of Trent in The Council of Trent met off and on for 18 years. Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teaching that both faith and good works were necessary for salvation. Upheld the seven sacraments. The belief in purgatory and indulgences was strengthened, although the sale of indulgences was forbidden.

33 Conclusion Problems with the Catholic Church of the Middle Ages led to the split of the Church. The Protestant Reformation begun by Martin Luther in 1517 still goes on today, and Catholic Reform has had a lasting effect on the doctrine of the world s largest Church.

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