The Reformation. Main Idea: Martin Luther s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church led to the founding of Protestant churches.

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1 The Reformation -a movement for religious reforms Main Idea: Martin Luther s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church led to the founding of Protestant churches.

2 Immediate Causes: Selling of indulgences Posting of 95 theses Diet of Worms (April 18,1521) Spread of Luther s ideas. Long-Term Causes: 1. The new ideas of the Renaissancethinkers began to question traditional ideas that challenged church authority. 2. The new technology:-the printing press of J. Guthenburg in 1455 spread these new ideas. 3. The Catholic church faced problems: a) Corrupted leaders-popes seemed more concerned with luxury and political power that with spiritual; matters; people had to pay taxes to support the Church in Rome. b) The lower clergy had faults many local priests lacked education and couldn t teach people; other took actions that broke their vows as priests (marriages)

3 Why it matters now? Nearly 0ne-fourth out of the Christians in today s world are Protestants. The Reformation led to the founding of Christian churches that did not accept the pope s authority.

4 Early calls for Reformation In the late 1300s and early 1400s, John Wycliff and Jan Hus had advocated church reform. They denied that the pope had the right to worldly power. They also taught that the Bible had more authority that Church leaders. In the 1500s, Christian humanists like Erasmus and Thomas More added their voices to the chorus of criticism. In the 1490s, An Italian Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola came to Florence to denounced clerical corruption, despotic rule and the exploitation of the poor. He instituted a puritanical campaign, enlisting the active help of Florentine youth.

5 Analyzing question: Q. - How did political, social and economical problems weaken the church? A.- Political: Rulers resented the pope s attempt to control them and Germany was not unified. Social: Printing press spread Renaissance idea that challenged the church authority. Economical: Merchants resented paying church taxes.

6 Luther Challenges the Church In 1517 Luther take public stand against the actions of a friar named Johann Tetzel who was selling indulgences (pardons) giving people the wrong impression that this will buy their way into heaven. Luther was trouble by Tetzel s tactics. He wrote 95 Theses (formal statements), attacking the pardon- merchants. He posted them on the door of the church and invited other scholars to debate him. Luther s 95 Theses were printed and spread quickly. This started the Reformation!

7 Luther s Main Ideas: People Could win salvation only by faith in God s gift of forgiveness. The Church taught that faith and good works were needed for salvation. All Church teachings should be clearly based on the words of the Bible. The pope and church traditions were false authorities. All people with faith were equal. Therefore, people did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them.

8 Synthesizing Q.- Review the list of Luther s teachings. Which of these points help you to understand why it felt it was all right to defy the pope? A.- He taught the pope was a false authority. He taught all Christians are equal, so the pope had no power to damn him.

9 The Response to Luther and Germany Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther-in 1520 The Emperor s opposition- Charles V issued an order, the Edict of Worms declaring Luther an outlaw and a heretic.according to this edict no food or shelter should be given to Luther and his books were to be burned. Luther translated the Bible in German. Peasant s revolt Germany at war- Peace of Augsburg in 1555.

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13 England Becomes Protestant Q.-Why did England become protestant? Henry VIII In 1527 Henry VIII wants a divorce and the pope refused. In 1529 Henry called the Parliament and ended the pope s power in England. In 1533 Henry married Anne Boleyn. In 1534 the Parliament approved the Act of Supremacy- which made the king not the pope official head of the Church.

14 Consequences: Clashes over religious reform heighten when Henry s heirs take the throne. (Edward VI Mary I - Elizabeth I)

15 Elizabeth I The goddess of the Reformation. The Virgin Queen- married to England. The most remarkable woman-ruler in history who gave her name to an age. The Elizabethan era in 16 th century England was a prolific period for English literature. William Shakespeare were only a few of the many writers who created great works during the reign of Elizabeth I. Elizabeth was a strong woman, a very skillful politician and a magnetic monarch who reshaped the fate of England.

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18 The Effects: Immediate Effects: 1. History of the Christian Church (see the chart) 2. Martin Luther and Protestantism in Europe 3. Rise of Calvinism and Presbyterianism - Calvin and Knox-The Anglican Church- Henry VIII and Elizabeth I (Henry VIII breaks with the pope and became head of the Church in England) Long Term Effects: 1. The Jesuits-Ignatius Loyola 2. Counter-Reformation or Catholic reformation: Paul III ( ) the Council of Trent-1545 Paul IV ( )- the Counter reformation. Charles V- the Peace of Augsburg-1555 (Catholicism and Lutheranism only) 3. Religious war and persecution in Europe. 4. Straightening of authority of state.

19 QUESTIONS: 1. What does Reformation means? 2. Which are the conditions that led to a religious revolt? 3. Summarize Luther 3 main ideas. 4. How did the printing press prepare the way for religious revolution?

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21 The Reformation Continues Ignatius Loyola pope Paul III pope Paul IV king Charles V

22 The Jesuits-Ignatius Loyola ( ) Ignatius Loyola was a Spanish knight from a local noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and was its first Superior General. Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter- Reformation. Loyola's devotion to the Catholic Church was characterized by unquestioning obedience to the Catholic Church's authority and hierarchy. Between 1524 and 1537, Ignatius studied theology and Latin in Spain and then in Paris. Ignatius and a few followers bound themselves by vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. In 1539, they formed the Society of Jesus, approved in 1540 by Pope Paul III, as well as his Spiritual Exercises approved in Loyola also composed the Constitutions of the Society.

23 Counter-Reformation Catholic reformation: Paul III ( ) the Council of Trent-1545 Paul IV ( )- the Counter reformation. Charles V- the Peace of Augsburg (Catholicism and Lutheranism only)

24 The Legacy of the Reformation Protestant churches flourished. Religion no longer united Europe. The Church power declined. Individual monarchs and states gained power. Rejection of Christians belief that occurred in Western literature in later centuries. The Reformation helped to set the stage for the modern history.

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