The Protestant Reformation CHAPTER 1 SECTION 3

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1 The Protestant Reformation CHAPTER 1 SECTION 3

2 From Renaissance to Reformation 1500s, Renaissance ideas spark a religious upheaval The Protestant Reformation = People start to question the Church!

3 Why Question the Church? Popes and higher clergy members led very lavish (plentiful) lives. Lots of food, alcohol, parties, silk & wealth. The people and lower clergy were poor! The Church s policy didn t always match what the Bible said. People can Read! The Church was far away from northern Europe.

4 Martin Luther: Father of the Reformation Who: Monk What: Started a religious revolution Where: Wittenberg, Germany When: 1517 Why: Outraged by the selling of indulgences for Church profit. How: Wrote the 95 Theses = everything the Church is doing is wrong! Nailed it to the Church door for everyone to see. Hoped to inspire debate. theses/videos/martin-luther-sparks-a-revolution

5 What is an Indulgence? Form of penitence for doing something bad. Its purpose is to prevent oneself from going to hell for sins committed. The unrestricted sale of indulgences was in widespread abuse during this time.

6 Martin Luther s Beliefs 1. The Pope does not have the authority to release souls from purgatory through the sale of indulgences. 2. All Christians have equal access to God though faith and the Bible.

7 Why were the 95 Theses Important? Inspired debate across Europe and defiance towards the Church How do you think Renaissance ideas contributed to the Reformation?

8 Sequence of Events 1. Luther encourages debate questioning Church practices. 2. The Church gets angry! 3. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V orders Luther to stop. 4. Luther refuses = break from the Church = formation of Lutheranism; seen as a hero! 5. Luther is declared a heretic in the Edict of Worms Not allowed to practice Catholicism Forbid anyone from giving Luther food or shelter. 6. The printing press spread s Luther's ideas.

9 I have cast the dye I will not reconcile myself to them for all eternity Let them condemn and burn all that belongs to me; in return I will do as much for them Now I no longer fear, and I am publishing a book in the German tongue about Christian reform, directed against the Pope, in language as violent as if I were addressing the Antichrist. - Martin Luther, 1520

10

11 Unintentional Consequences Peasants start a revolution = end to feudalism; raided the countryside burning monasteries Luther does not support the revolts = many of his followers turned against him. Northern German princes see an opportunity used his ideas as an excuse to take land from the Church and gain independence from Charles V.

12 The Church Breaks Apart Original Christianity Sect: A religious group that has broken away from an established church.

13 John Calvin = Calvinism Geneva, Switzerland; shared Luther s beliefs but also believed in predestination God has already chosen who are saved. Set up a theocracy = government run by church leaders. Reformers from all over Europe visited Switzerland to learn about Calvin s ideas.

14 Calvinism Spreads John Knox visits Switzerland brings Calvinism to Scotland Changed the name to Presbyterians France = Calvin s followers were called the Huguenots Frequently fought with the Catholic Church causing violence.

15 The Protestant Reformation Spreads CHAPTER 1 SECTION 4

16 The Church of England: The Saga of Henry VIII Henry VIII = Devout Catholic BUT wants to divorce his wife. Big NO NO in the Catholic Church! Why does he want a divorce? His wife Catherine was no longer able to have children and he needed a male heir.

17 Catherine of Aragon Henry s only option was an annulment = has to prove that his marriage was never legal. Claims that his wife was not a virgin when he married her. Originally married his brother = alliance between Spain and England, but the brother died Henry was then forced to marry Catherine to prevent the alliance from falling apart.

18 Annulment Denied! Henry wrote to the Pope asking for an annulment. The Pope refused because Catherine was Charles V s aunt. Who is Charles the V? Young Henry the VIII

19 Break with the Church No Annulment, No Problem 1534, Henry has Parliament pass the Act of Supremacy Created the Church of England Made Henry the head of the Church. Had his marriage annulled and married Ann Boleyn

20 Before the Reformation Henry supported the Catholic Church by executing Protestants in England. His friend Sir Thomas More believed the purge was what God wanted and headed up the council in charge of identifying Protestants. Many were burned at the stake.

21 After the Split Many Catholics refused to abandon their faith = mass killings. Even Henry s friend Sir Thomas More was killed because he refused to accept Henry as the head of the Church of England.

22 Why can t I have a boy? Wives # s 2-6 # 2 Ann Boleyn, executed her when she had a girl instead of a boy = Elizabeth I # 3 Jane Seymour = first surviving boy Edward VI = sickly # 4-6 no babies!

23 Henry Died, Now What? Edward takes the throne at 10 but dies 6 years later. Catherine s daughter Mary Tudor, daughter becomes Queen; earns the nickname Bloody Mary Reestablished the Catholic Church Killed thousands who refused to convert back to Catholicism

24 Edward VI Bloody Mary

25 Elizabeth I After Mary s death, Elizabeth I became Queen One of the greatest monarchs in England s history. Brought peace And enacted religions reforms that allowed both Protestants and Catholics to practice.

26 The Counter Reformation: The Church Strikes Back! Reform movement within the Catholic Church. The popes Council of Trent reaffirmed Catholic views. Spanish Knight, Ignatius of Layola, formed the Jesuits = new religious order that defended the church and worked to spread Catholicism.

27 Pre Reformation Europe

28 Europe 1530s

29 Results of the Reformation Martin Luther split the Church in two Protestant (splits into many other sects) Catholic Religious boundaries were drawn across Europe. Many people were persecuted for their beliefs both Protestants and Catholics.

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