1) Africans, Asians an Native Americans exposed to Christianity

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2 Two traits that continue into the 21 st Century 1) Africans, Asians an Native Americans exposed to Christianity Becomes truly a world religion Now the evangelistic groups 2) emergence of a modern scientific outlook Becomes sharply critical of Western Christianity and religion in general Not unique to Europe Becomes a religion for many *becomes a feature of global modernity *accepted worldwide more than any single religion But in 1500 Islam was on the offensive

3 MARTIN LUTHER AND THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION

4 I. The Protestant Reformation A. Abuses in the Roman Catholic Church 1. Popes constantly fighting powerful kings 2. Popes live a life of luxury a. patrons of arts 3. Roman Catholic Church raises its fees for sacraments a. Especially selling of indulgences

5 I. The Protestant Reformation B. Martin Luther s Protest 1. German theologian and monk 2. disgusted with Church greed and corruption Theses against practices of the Roman Catholic Church and Popes

6 I. The Protestant Reformation C. The 95 Theses 1. written in Luther argued : a. pope had no real authority b. faith was the only way to Heaven c. the selling of indulgences was definitely wrong

7 I. The Protestant Reformation D. Indulgence Preaching Don t you hear the voices of your dead parents and other relatives crying out, Have mercy on us, for we suffer great punishment and pain. From this you could release us with a few alms [donations] We have created you, fed you, cared for you, and left you our temporal goods. Why do you treat us so cruelly and leave us to suffer in the flames, when it takes only a little to save us? - from a famous indulgence preacher, John Tetzel [1519] What strategy does John Tetzel (and other indulgence preachers) evoke (use)?

8 I. The Protestant Reformation E. Martin Luther vs. the Roman Catholic Church 1. copies of the 95 Theses 2. requested to recant (take back) - Diet of Worms 3. Martin Luther refused to recant - excommunicated in declared outlaw by Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V 5. hid in Wartburg for over a year 6. Martin Luther considered a hero by thousands of Germans

9 I. The Protestant Reformation F. Luther s Teachings: 1. good deeds not necessary; faith alone 2. said Bible was sole source for religious truth a. not Popes, councils, or cannon laws 3. denied that priests, Bishops and the Pope had special powers 4. rejected 5 of the 7 Roman Catholic sacraments 5. banned indulgences, confessions, pilgrimages, and prayer to saints 6. deemphasized the ceremony of mass, and emphasized the sermon 7. permitted the clergy to marry 8. translated the Bible into German vernacular a. established schools Why was universal education important to Martin Luther s goals?

10 I. The Protestant Reformation G. The Spread of Luther s Ideas 1. Northern Germany became Protestant 2. some became Lutherans for political reasons Peasant s Revolt Peace of Augsburg

11 I. The Protestant Reformation H. Other Protestant Reformers 1. Jan Huss 2. Ulrich Zwingli from Zurich 3. John Calvin from France

12 I. The Protestant Reformation H. Other Protestant Reformers 3. John Calvin from France c. established a theocracy in Geneva (Swiss) d. Calvinism spread to Germany, France, Netherlands, England and Scotland i. violence followed

13 II. Reformation Ideas Spread A. throughout Europe, the Roman Catholic Church and monarchs fought to stop the spread of Luther s (and other s) protestant ideas. 1. however, Protestantism continued to spread

14 II. Reformation Ideas Spread B. Radical Reformers 1. hundreds of other sects were created 2. Anabaptists rejected infant baptism 3. some wanted to abolish private property 4. most wanted religious toleration and

15 C. The English Reformation hundred years in the making 2. Henry VII s motives

16 II. Reformation Ideas Spread C. The English Reformation 3. originally Defender of the Faith 4. in 1527, Henry VIII - annul his 18-year marriage to his Catherine Act of Supremacy a. parliament-approved takeover of Church asset b. many protested, many died 6. married Anne Boleyn, only a daughter (Elizabeth) a. Henry eventually marries 6 times, only one son, Edward

17 II. Reformation Ideas Spread D. The Church of England and 1540, seized Church possessions and land 2. renamed the Catholic Church the Anglican Church a. allowed Bibles in English and rejected the Pope were the major changes 3. After Henry VIII s death, religious turmoil followed

18 II. Reformation Ideas Spread D. The Church of England 4. The Elizabethan Settlement a. became queen in 1558 (rules until 1603!) b. created a compromise c. kept some important rituals of the Roman Catholic Church, but instituted many of the most popular Protestant reforms d. England eventually became a primarily Protestant nation

19 III. The Catholic Reformation (Counterreformation) A. Main Idea: As the Protestant Reformation swept across northern Europe, a vigorous reform movement began within the Catholic Church. 1. Headed by Pope Paul III during the 1530s-1540s 2. appointed quality humans to important positions

20 III. The Catholic Reformation (Counterreformation) B. The Council of Trent 1. started in 1545 and continued, on and off, for nearly 20 years 2. here is what the council concluded: a. they were right, and the Protestants were wrong b. Bible not the only source of religious truth c. crackdown needed to stop excessive luxury d. created more schools for better-educated clergy

21 III. The Catholic Reformation (Counterreformation) C. The Inquisition 1. Pope Paul strengthened the Inquisition 2. a church court established during Medieval times 3. used secret testimony, torture and execution to root out heretics 4. created the Index of Forbidden Books

22 III. The Catholic Reformation (Counterreformation) D. Ignatius of Loyola 1. a Spanish knight of Crusading tradition 2. injured in battle; became a soldier of God 3. founded the Society of Jesuits a. recognized in 1540 by the Pope b. determined to combat heresy and spread Catholicism c. demanded spiritual and moral discipline and rigorous religious training d. became advisors to Catholic rulers e. established schools in Asia, Africa, and the Americas

23 III. The Catholic Reformation (Counterreformation) E. Results of the Catholic Reformation 1. Rome and the Papacy were considerably more devout 2. piety and charity flourished throughout Europe 3. slowed, but did not stop, the spread of Protestantism 4. Europe harshly divided between Protestant North and Catholic South

24 IV. Widespread Persecution A. Main Idea: During this period of heightened religious passion, persecution was widespread. 1. Protestants attacked Catholics and vice versa 2. both Protestants and Catholics attacked radical groups like the Anabaptists

25 IV. Widespread Persecution B. Witch Hunts 1. religious excitement led to a wave of witch hunting 2. witches were social outcasts; usually women 3. witches were used as scapegoats 4. 10,000s of supposed witches were executed between 1450 and 1700 a. mostly in France, and both Swiss and German states b. Salem Witch Trials happened in 1692 in Massachusetts i. 200 accused, 20 convicted and executed

26 IV. Widespread Persecution C. Anti-Semitism during the Reformation 1. as we have seen, Jews are persecuted more in times if chaos 2. many Jews were forced to live in ghettos 3. some had to wear golden stars as identification 4. great efforts were made to convert Jews to Christianity

27 Cause and Effect of the Protestant Reformation Long-Term Causes RC Church corruption and luxury Humanist urged a return to a simpler form of Christianity Strong national monarchs emerge Immediate Causes Selling of indulgences Martin Luther s 95 Theses Vernacular translations of the Bible The printing press (mass copies) Immediate Effects Peasants Revolt Creation of several new sects of Protestantism Christianity Weakening of the Holy Roman Empire Violence toward Jews Long-Term Effects Religious wars throughout Europe Catholic Reformation Inquisition strengthened Increased anti-semitism

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