AP WORLD HISTORY Big Ideas

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1 AP WORLD HISTORY Big Ideas The purpose of this PowerPoint is for you to review 10 Big Ideas from each of our historical units. (Units 1& 2 are combined together). As you read the top 10 countdown hopefully you will find yourself saying, I remember that! Then again you ought to it s a big idea. If you find yourself trying to figure out what comes next in the top ten countdowns even better!

2 Unit 1 FOUNDATIONS & TRANSFORMATIONS 8000 B.C.E. 600 B.C.E. Unit II REORGANIZING HUMAN SOCIETIES 600 B.C.E. 600 C.E.

3 Number 10 The Neolithic Revolution Sometime around 8,000 B.C.E. people begin to farm and learn to domesticate animals. This event is considered the starting point for this course. Prior to the Neolithic Revolution ALL people were hunter gathers. However, a steady food supply from farming would allow societies the luxury of no longer having to be nomadic, as a result civilizations would rise.

4 Number 9 The Phoenicians The Phoenicians were a seafaring people who ventured throughout the Mediterranean. Before Rome came about it was the Phoenicians who carried out trade and laid down the connections between societies who lived around the Mediterranean. They were also the first to develop an alphabet.

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6 Number 8 Greek city states & Western Civilization Before there was a Roman Empire it was the Greeks who were laying down the foundation of Western Civilization. Various city states (Athens, Sparta, etc.) would unite to confront the Persians, but they also fought one another. Agriculture, trade, and slavery were integral parts of society, but the Athenians were also the first to bring democracy.

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8 Number 7 Rome Rise & Fall For nearly 1000 years Rome, first as a republic then as an empire dominated Mediterranean affairs. They were able to build roads, aqueducts, and establish a political system to control Europe. However, their over expansion and fall to invaders left Europe in ruins. Only the eastern side of the empire (the new Byzantine Empire) was a glimmer of what was once a marvelous empire. Due to Rome s collapse Europe would be on the verge of the Dark Ages.

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10 Number 6 Alexander the Great & Hellenistic Culture Alexander the Great rose from the Greek city state of Macedonia. Through conquest he was able to create a massive empire in the ancient world stretching from Greece to Egypt all the way to India. However, through the formation of this empire Greek culture was able to spread and blend with local cultures along the way. As a result, this synthesis of Hellenistic culture was able to form.

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12 Number 5 The cycle of unification & collapse in Asia In both China and in India a period of unification was followed by a period of collapse, both nations happen to repeat this process from time to time in history. For China, (like a porcelain vase) it was united under the Shang Dynasty, then broke up, then got back together under the Zhou Dynasty, only to divide again, until the rise of the Han Dynasty where it was unified again. For India, (like a patchwork quilt) it represented several unique regions that were brought together under the Mauyran Empire, only to divide into chaos for 500 years, and then reunited with the rise of the Gupta Empire.

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14 Number 4 The Rome & Han Comparison Although they are on opposite sides of the planet both Rome and Han China occurred roughly at the same time and had some key similarities & differences. Similarities: Patriarchal, agriculture is important, water engineering, network of roads for trading, declined from similar causes, moved their capitals. Differences: no spiritual connection for Roman rulers, no cult of ancestry in Rome, Confucianism was seen as a model whereas Christianity at first was a problem, slavery, emphasis on laws.

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16 Number 3 Monotheism Until Judaism & Zoroastrianism all societies in the world practiced a form of polytheism. The addition of Christianity and it s eventual acceptance in Europe in the 300s continued this trend of an alternative belief system.

17 Number 2 The rise of Afro Eurasian connections Beginning with groups like the Hittites, Assyrians, Phoenicians, and Indo European language groups regional societies began to make connections with each other through trade and warfare. Alexander the Great expands on this trend. However, it is the rise of the SILK ROADS, SAHARA TRADE ROUTES, & the INDIAN OCEAN MARITIME TRADING NETWORK that solidify connections between people in Africa, Asia, the Mediterranean region, and the Middle East.

18 Number 1 The rise of civilizations The Neolithic Revolution and learning how to domesticate animals enables people to settle down. By doing so civilizations can come about, which represents a major shift in the way human beings will live. Characteristics of a civilization: Monumental building Specialized labor Record keeping Political organization Interest in science & art

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20 Unit III AN AGE OF ACCELERATING CONNECTIONS

21 Number 10 The World is starting to come together Whereas during Unit 1 and 2 there were pockets of civilizations and empires in existence, and these different regions were only beginning to get connected through trade routes and conquest; the connections in Afro Eurasia / the Old World between really intensify. Some parts of the world are left out of course (Oceania / Americas).

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23 Number 9 Americas are untouched / but empires exist The Americas are still out of the loop in terms of Afro Eurasian trade / communication that is intensifying. However, that doesn t mean the Americas don t have civilizations and empires of their own (i.e. Aztecs, Incas). These polytheistic groups are able to build cities, roads, drain swamps, and have class systems.

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25 Number 8 West African Kingdoms Ghana, Mali, and Songhai Similar to the Americas kingdoms also exist in West Africa, however in contrast they will become increasingly more connected to other Afro Eurasian societies through trade routes. This is especially true due to the gold salt trade and the expansion of Islam. Mali once led by Mansa Musa was an Islamic empire that benefited greatly from the gold salt trade. We know a great deal about Mali and other tropical societies like the Delhi Sultanate due to the explorations of Ibn Battuta.

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27 Number 7 Indian Ocean Trading The Indian Ocean Maritime trading network was the sea counterpart to the Silk Roads. Religions (i.e. Islam), spices, cotton, and even horses were traded through the use of boats like dhows and junks. Independent city states (Kilwa, Aden, Gujarat, Malacca) cooperated to facilitate trade. Unlike the Silk Roads who at one time came under the control of the Mongols, the Indian Ocean was decentralized. In the first half of the 1400s Zheng He of the Ming Dynasty in China made several expeditions through the region.

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29 Number 6 Byzantine Empire This time period of was practically made for the Byzantine Empire for this is roughly its date of birth and death ( ). The empire became significant with the collapse of the Roman Empire; it was the sole bright spot for Europe during the Dark Ages. Key ideas: Orthodox Christianity, Justinian, 4 th Crusade The empire is considered one of the end points along the Silk Roads. They are the first of European Christians to deal with the expansion of Islam.

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31 Number 5 Europe revives and is on the verge of something big After more than 500 years of darkness Europe awakens; increased food supply & population, guilds, towns, increased trade (i.e. Venice), & the end of feudalism! (Okay, the Black Death is still to come, but other than that happy days are returning!) Then comes the Renaissance beginning in Florence, Italy and then spreading to the rest of Europe. During the Crusades Europeans began to realize what they had been missing out on (i.e. science & learning, spices, etc.) from Arabs and as a result will try to sail to the Indies.

32 Increased trade and market activity

33 Number 4 Europe goes dark Prior to the Renaissance, following the fall of Rome, (roughly ) Europe was a place of ruin. No longer were there working aqueducts and or a centralized government. (Okay so the exception is the Byzantine Empire and also Charlemagne s empire, but by and large Western Europe is a disaster). During the Dark Ages there was feudalism (lords, knights, serfs) and the only unifying connection for Europeans was Christianity. Other key features: decline in learning & trade, Viking invasions, most people were peasants / serfs.

34 AFRICA... I Mediterranean Sea Jerusalem Alexandria FATIMID CALIPHATE EGYPT

35 Number 3 The Mongols Coming from the steppes of northern Asia beginning in the early 1200s these superb horse riders were able to conquer and collect tribute from China to Persia to the outskirts of Europe. Although the Mongolian Empire was divided into four khanates, and they were known for their brutality, the Mongols were also able to successfully facilitate trade along the Silk Roads.

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37 Number 2 The Silk Roads If world history is about societies becoming more and more connected, then the Silk Roads are perhaps one of the most significant subjects of history. Everything from religions (i.e. Buddhism), silk, spices, textiles, animals, slaves, and even diseases (the bubonic plague) pass along its routes. Furthermore, key societies in history play an integral role facilitating trade and conducting warfare along their routes (i.e. Mongols, Arabs, Alexander the Great, Byzantine Empire, etc.)

38 Number 1 The Rise and Spread of Islam The most significant event between is the rise of Islam for it affects all of Afro Eurasia. Beginning with Muhammad in the 600s the religion quickly spreads through the Middle East and North Africa. Caliphates sprout up even in Spain. The spread of Islam is why nervous Christians call for the Crusades, some Mongols will convert to it, Islam is spread by merchants along the Indian Ocean trade routes, Mali will become an Islamic empire, it is Muslims and Islamic cities who make advancements in science at this time

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