Chapter 12. Cross-Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads. 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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1 Chapter 12 Cross-Cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads 1

2 Long-Distance Travel in the Ancient World n Lack of police enforcement outside of established settlements n Changed in classical period q Improvement of infrastructure q Development of empires 2

3 Trade Networks Develop n Dramatic increase in trade due to Greek colonization n Maintenance of roads, bridges n Discovery of monsoon wind patterns n Increased tariff revenues used to maintain open routes 3

4 Trade in the Hellenistic World n Bactria/India q Spices, pepper, cosmetics, gems, pearls n Persia, Egypt q Grain n Mediterranean q Wine, oil, jewelry, art n Development of professional merchant class 4

5 The Silk Roads n Named for principal commodity from China n Dependent on imperial stability n Overland trade routes from China to Roman empire n Sea lanes and maritime trade as well 5

6 The Silk Roads, 200 B.C.E.-300 C.E. 6

7 Organization of Long-Distance Trade n Divided into small segments q Trade done in stages n Sea trade q Malay and Indian mariners q Persian, Egyptian, Greek 7

8 Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism n Merchants carry religious ideas along silk routes n India through central Asia to east Asia n Cosmopolitan centers promote development of monasteries to shelter traveling merchants n Buddhism becomes dominant faith of silk roads, 200 B.C.E C.E. 8

9 The Spread of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity, 200 B.C.E.-400 C.E. 9

10 Buddhism in China n Originally, Buddhism restricted to foreign merchant populations n Gradual spread to larger population, beginning fifth century C.E. 10

11 Buddhism and Hinduism in SE Asia n Sea lanes in Indian Ocean n First century C.E., clear Indian influence in southeast Asia q Rulers called rajas q Sanskrit used for written communication q Buddhism, Hinduism increasingly popular faiths 11

12 Christianity in Mediterranean Basin n Gregory the Wonderworker, central Anatolia, third century C.E. n Christianity spreads through middle east, north Africa, Europe n Sizeable communities as far east as India n Judaism, Zoroastrianism also practiced 12

13 Christianity in Southwest Asia n Influence of ascetic practices from India n Desert-dwelling hermits, monastic societies n After fifth century C.E., followed Nestorius q Emphasized human nature of Jesus 13

14 Spread of Manichaeism n Mani a devout Zoroastrian ( C.E.) n Viewed himself a prophet for all humanity n Influenced by Christianity and Buddhism n Dualist q Good vs. evil q Light vs. dark q Spirit vs. matter 14

15 Manichaean Society n Devout: the elect q Ascetic lifestyle q Celibacy, vegetarianism q Life of prayer and fasting n Laity: hearers q Material supporters of the elect 15

16 Decline of Manichaeism n Spread through silk routes to major cities in Roman empire n Zoroastrian opposition provokes Sasanid persecution q Mani arrested, dies in captivity n Romans, fearing Persian influence, also persecute 16

17 The Spread of Epidemic Disease n Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens n Limited data, but trends in demographics reasonably clear n Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague n Effect: economic slowdown, move to regional self-sufficiency 17

18 Epidemics in the Han and Roman Empires 18

19 Internal Decay of the Han State n Court intrigue n Problem of land distribution q Large landholders develop private armies n Epidemics n Peasant rebellions q 184 C.E., Yellow Turban uprising 19

20 Collapse of the Han Dynasty n Generals assume authority, reduce emperor to puppet figure n Alliance with landowners n 200 C.E., Han dynasty abolished, replaced by three kingdoms n Immigration of northern nomads increases 20

21 Sinicization of Nomadic Peoples n Social and cultural changes to a Chinese way of life n Adapted to the Chinese environment q Agriculture n Adoption of Chinese names, dress, intermarriage 21

22 Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism n Disintegration of political order casts doubt on Confucian doctrines n Buddhism, Daoism gain popularity n Religions of salvation 22

23 Fall of the Roman Empire: Internal Factors n The barracks emperors n C.E., twenty-six claimants to the throne, all but one killed in power struggles n Epidemics n Disintegration of imperial economy in favor of local and regional self-sufficient economies 23

24 Diocletian (r C.E.) n Divided empire into two administrative districts n Co-emperors, dual lieutenants q Tetrarchs n Currency, budget reform n Relative stability disappears after Diocletian's death, civil war follows n Constantine emerges victorious 24

25 Fall of the Roman Empire: External Factors n Visigoths, influenced by Roman law, Christianity q Formerly buffer states for Roman empire n Attacked by Huns under Attila in fifth century C.E. n Massive migration of Germanic peoples into Roman empire n Sacked Rome in 410 C.E., established Germanic emperor in 476 C.E. 25

26 Germanic Invasions and the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, C.E. 26

27 Cultural Change in the Roman Empire n Growth of Christianity q Constantine s vision, 312 C.E. q Promulgates Edict of Milan, allows Christian practice q Converts to Christianity n 380 C.E., Emperor Theodosius proclaims Christianity official religion of Roman empire 27

28 St. Augustine ( C.E.) n Hippo, north Africa n Experimented with Greek thought, Manichaeism n 387 C.E., converts to Christianity n Major theologian 28

29 The Institutional Church n Conflicts over doctrine and practice in early Church q Divinity of Jesus q Role of women n Church hierarchy established q Patriarchs, bishop of Rome 29

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