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1 Name: Date: Period: UNIT SUMMARY Chapter 9 Reading Guide Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe, p In addition to the great civilizations of Asia and North Africa forming during the postclassical period, two related major civilizations formed in Europe. The Byzantine Empire, in western Asia and southeastern Europe, expanded into Eastern Europe. The other was defined by the influence of Catholicism in western and central Europe. The Byzantine Empire, with territory in the Balkans, the Middle East, and the eastern Mediterranean, maintained very high levels of political, economic, and cultural life between 500 and 1450 C.E. The empire continued many Roman patterns and spread its Orthodox Christian civilization through most of Eastern Europe, Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. Catholic Christianity, without an imperial center, spread in Western Europe. Two separate civilizations emerged from the differing Christian influences. Using the maps on page 208 & 212: A. Draw the boundaries of the Byzantine Empire in the following years using the following line patterns OR using 4 different map colors. If you use map colors, color over the line patterns below to create an accurate key. a. 527 CE b. 565 CE c CE (you ll have to go off the side of the map a little) d CE B. Who was responsible for the acquisition of Italy? C. What continuous pattern do you see after 565? D. What major area has been lost by 1000 CE, other than Italy? E. From what direction does the Byzantine Empire face its greatest threat?

2 CIVILIZATION IN EASTERN EUROPE p.204 The Power of the Byzantine Empire 1. What former empire in the West did the Byzantine Empire spring from and continue? 2. What was the Byzantine capital? 3. What form of Christianity was practiced in the Byzantine Empire? 4. What area did the Byzantine influence? 5. What began to spread northward? 6. How were Eastern and Western Europe developing differently? THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE p Which Roman emperor moved the eastern capital to Byzantium? 8. What area did it include? 9. What language did it use? 10. Why was this language beneficial? 11. Who was allowed to participate in the bureaucracy that had not during Roman times? Justinian s Achievements 12. Who was the empire under the threat of? 13. What were some of the negative attributes of Justinian? 14. What were some of his positive achievements? 15. What helped to unify the empire, like it did during the Roman Empire? 16. What was the reason for raising taxes? Arab Pressure and the Empire s Defenses 17. What method was used to convert people in the Middle East to Christianity in the 600s? 18. What eventually threatened Byzantine holdings in the Middle East? What military means did they use? 19. What new scientific weapon did the Byznatines use to combat the Arabs? 20. Where did the burden of maintaining the empire fall, militarily and economically? 21. What caused this group additional strain?

3 22. In what period was Byzantine at its height? Byzantine Society and Politics 23. Which government was the Byzantine government similar to? How? 24. Who was head of the church? 25. How do we know that women exerted more importance/power during the Byzantine Empire? 26. Who served in the Byzantine bureaucracy? 27. What did they have to be schooled in? 28. Who held positions close to the emperor? Why do you think? 29. How were military recruited? Who is this similar to? 30. What did the Byzantine Empire effectively do for Europe until the 15 th century? 31. What new role did the Byzantine Empire take in the economy? Who did it mean to benefit and why? Who did it hurt and why? 32. What philosophy did their cultural life center around? 33. What kinds of artistic/architectural innovations came out of Byzantium? THE SPLIT BETWEEN EASTERN AND WESTERN CHRISTIANITY p In 1054, what brought the differences between the East and West to a head? 35. What split in Islam resembles the split between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches? (THINK!! What two sub- groups exist in Islam?) 36. Fill out the chart below to compare/contrast the differences between the Eastern and Western forms of Christianity. West Head of church East Bible language Priests celibacy Rituals

4 The Empire s Decline 37. What united the nomadic invaders? 38. What caused the biggest blow to the empire s economy? 39. What resulted from the Byzantine appeal for help from the West? 40. How much longer does the Byzantine Empire last after the Crusaders attacked Constantinople? 41. When did Constantinople fall to the Turks? 42. What made this empire significant? THINKING HISTORICALLY: Eastern and Western Europe: The Problem of Boundaries p Why is it difficult to clearly draw a line on a map between Eastern and Western Europe? 44. Make an argument for Poland for being a Western European country and then make a counter argument for it being an Eastern European country. a. b. THE SPREAD OF CIVILIZATION IN EASTERN EUROPE p Who spread Christianity north? 46. Why are Cyril and Methodius important? 47. What made the spread of Orthodox Christianity successful in its spread north? The East Central Borderlands 48. What region did Jews immigrate to? Why? 49. What area of the economy were Jews allowed to participate? 50. Due to the treatment from Christians and forced cultural isolation, what behavior did they emphasize? THE EMERGENCE OF KIEVAN RUS p What ethnic group of people settled this area of Eastern Europe? 52. Briefly describe their political and cultural tradition. New Patterns of Trade 53. What group of people migrated into this area? How? Why? 54. Who set up a principality in Kiev?

5 55. Where did the word Russia come from? 56. Who did they trade with? 57. Why did Vladimir I adopt Orthodox Christianity as the religion for his people? (Why not the others?) 58. What did Yaroslav do to built unity? Institutions and Culture in Kievan Rus 59. Compare/Contrast Byzantine and Russian political institutions. 60. How were Russian aristocrats different than in Western Europe? Kievan Decline 61. What internal problems did they have? 62. Externally what affected their economy? 63. What nomadic group laid the final low? What did they call them? 64. How long did they control Russia? 65. Russians were left to their day to day activities as long as they did what? 66. What did Russians consider themselves? TIMELINE Insert the following events into the timeline A. Constantinople taken by Ottoman Turks, ending the Byzantine Empire B. Split between Eastern and Western Christianity C. Justinian dies D. Mongols/Tatars take Russia E. Mongols kicked out of Russia F. Russia adopts Christianity 500 CE 1000 CE 1500 CE

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