WHI.07: Byzantines and

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1 WHI.07: Byzantines and Russians Interact

2 Objectives p. 111 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Byzantine Empire and Russia from about 300 to 1000 a.d. by a) explaining the establishment of Constantinople as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire; b) identifying Justinian and his contributions, including the codification of Roman law, and describing the expansion of the Byzantine Empire and economy; c) characterizing Byzantine art and architecture and the preservation of Greek and Roman traditions; d) explaining disputes that led to the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church; e) assessing the impact of Byzantine influence and trade on Russia and Eastern Europe.

3 Essential Understandings p The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was changed to Constantinople to provide political, economic, and military advantages. 2.As the first to codify Roman law, Justinian provided the basis for the law codes of Western Europe. 3.Under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire reached its height in culture and prosperity Greek Orthodox Christianity and imperial patronage enabled the Byzantine Empire to develop a unique 4. style of art and architecture. 5. Greek and Roman traditions were preserved in the Byzantine Empire. 6.The cultural and political differences between the eastern and western Roman Empire weakened the unity of the Christian Church and led to its division. 7.Byzantine civilization influenced Russian and Eastern European civilizations through its religion, culture, and trade.

4 Essential Questions p Why was Constantinople established as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire? 2.What was the influence of Justinian s codification of Roman law on the Byzantine Empire and later legal codes? 3. What was Justinian s influence on the expansion of the Byzantine Empire and its economy? 4. What were the contributions of Byzantine art and architecture? 5. How did Greek and Roman culture survive within the Byzantine Empire? 6. What factors produced the division within the Christian Church? 7.Why did the Byzantine Empire have so much influence on religion, culture, and trade in Russia and Eastern Europe?

5 Why do I need to know this? p Byzantine culture deeply influenced Orthodox Christianity, a major branch of modern Christianity. 2.The early history of Russia separated it from the West, causing mutual misunderstandings that still exist today.

6 Main Idea After the fall of the Roman Empire in the West, the Byzantine Empire emerged as the dominant eastern power, with Constantinople as its political, economic, and religious center. The empire lasted over 1,000 years.

7 Diocletian s Rome

8 Byzantine Empire Constantinople 1. What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire? Constantinople 2.For which four reasons was it in a good location? a. Located far enough away from the Germanic invasions of the West b. Was a crossroads of trade on the Bosporus Strait c. Could protect the rich Eastern provinces more easily d. Easily fortified, surrounded on three sides by water bordering a natural harbor p. 113

9 Military Invasions of Roman Empire

10 Byzantine Empire 477

11 Constantinople

12 A satellite view of the area. Can you see the remarkable location of Constantinople at the center of the X of land & sea trade routes? Europe Black Sea Asia Aegean Sea

13 The Black Sea. The Bosphorus Strait. The Sea of Marmara. The Dardanelles Strait. Constantinople today known as Istanbul.

14 Byzantine Empire Constantinople 1. What was the role of Constantinople? a. True center of Byzantine power b.preserved classical Greco-Roman culture p. 113

15 Byzantine Empire The Emperor Justinian p What were Justinian s achievements? a.justinian Code sorted through old Roman laws and established a new code of law for the Byzantine Empire. It lasted for over 900 years. decided issues such as marriage, slavery, property, women s rights and crimes significance had a huge impact on European legal code b.reconquered former Roman territories, but not Rome unfortunately the conquests did not lastand the empire lost many of its territories c. expanded trade and made Constantinople very wealthy

16 Byzantine Empire 530

17 Byzantine Empire under Justinian 565

18 Byzantine Empire 600

19 Byzantine Empire 700

20 Expansion of Trade

21 Analyzing Justinian s Code Book I, Of Persons VIII. Slaves 1. Slaves are in the power of masters, a power derived from the law of nations: for among all nations it may be remarked that masters have the power of life and death over their slaves, and that everything acquired by the slave is acquired for the master. Book II, Of Things I. Division of Things 28. If the wheat of Titus is mixed with yours, when this takes place by mutual consent, the mixed heap belongs to you in common because each body, that is, each grain, which before was the property of one or other of you, has by your mutual consent been made your common property; but, if the intermixture were accidental, or made by Titus without your consent, the mixed wheat does not then belong to you both in common; because the grains still remain distinct, and retain their proper substance....if either of you keep the whole quantity of mixed wheat, the other has a real actio [claim or suit] for the amount of wheat belonging to him, but it is in the province of the judge to estimate the quality of the wheat belonging to each. 1. The Justinian Code has four different parts called books. What books do you see here? 2. What does the first sample tell you about slavery in both empires? How do you think slaves were treated? 3. Review Law Number 28. Under this law, what happens if someone takes your property without your permission? How do you think this law helped the government maintain order? 4. Why do you think it was important for the Roman and Byzantine empires to have extensive legal code?

22 Byzantine Empire The Emperor Justinian p What were Justinian s achievements? continued d. acted as head of the church and state e. placed a heavy emphasis on church buildingwhich displayed his leadership of both the government and church Hagia Sophia beautiful church that was the pinnacleof Justinian s building program f. Built bridges, churches, hospitals, libraries, and parks g. Had the fortifications of Constantinople repaired

23

24 Walls of Constantinople

25

26 Constantinople

27 Byzantine Empire The Emperor Justinian 2. Who was Theodora? a.born into lower class, worked as an actress and danceras a teenager. b. Loved adventure, new friendships and travel c. Married Justinian while in her 20 s, sometimes equaled or surpassed husband s wisdom and skills. d. Convinced her husband to crush Nika rebellion e. Established social welfare programs for the poor f. Worked for the rights of women p. 114

28 Byzantine Empire Culture p Art and architecture inspired by Christian Religion and Imperial Power 2.HagiaSophia beautiful church that was the pinnacle of Justinian s building program a. Built during Justinian s reign. Took 5-6 years to build b.known as the Church of Holy Wisdom c.when Constantinople fell to the Turks, HagiaSophia became a mosque; now it is a museum d. Plain exterior symbolizes earthly life e. Ornate interior symbolizes spiritual universe f. Cathedral s size, thick pillars, and enclosed space show Roman influence. g. Intricate and ornate design shows Eastern influences

29

30

31 Byzantine architects invented the pendentives which connected the round base of a dome to a square building.

32

33 The combination of Greco-Roman and Middle Eastern influence are evident in the intricate decoration on this column.

34 Byzantine Empire Culture p Mosaicswith gold-covered stones added more light to the huge interior of the Hagia Sophia 4. Icons religious images

35

36 Byzantine Empire Culture 5. Hippodrome entertainment venue for chariot races and circuses 6. Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries 7. Greekwas the primary language (as opposed to Latinin the West) 8. Church Greek Orthodox Christianity p. 116

37

38 Greek (Eastern) Orthodox Priests My Beard is AWESOME!!!

39 Greek (Eastern) Orthodox Countries

40 Byzantine Empire The Division of the Christian Church p Background -Distance and lack of contactslowly caused the doctrines and rituals of Western and Eastern Christianity to split in the 11 th Century. 2. emperors were crowned by the patriarch (bishop of Constantinople) 3.Conflict about power of Pope (in west) and Emperor (in east) a. 730AD Byzantine Emperor Leo III ordered all icons removed from churches b.iconoclasts broke into churches to destroy icons c.the popesupported the use of icons

41 Byzantine Empire The Division of the Christian Church p The Great Schism-In 1054, the split between the Eastern and Western Churches was made permanentwhen the Pope (in the West) and the Patriarch (in the East) excommunicatedeach other. a. Excommunication cast out from the church b. This permanent split was called the schism 2. Created the Roman Catholic (West) and Greek (Eastern) Orthodox (East) 3. the Catholics and Orthodox began competing for souls

42

43 History of Christianity

44 Roman Catholic Differences Similarities Eastern Orthodox Differences

45 Roman Catholic Differences 1. services were in Latin Similarities The base their faith on the gospel of Jesus and the Bible Eastern Orthodox Differences 1. services were in Greek or local languages

46 Roman Catholic Differences 1. services were in Latin 2.Popehad authority over all bishops Similarities The base their faith on the gospel of Jesus and the Bible Their religious leaders are priests and bishops Eastern Orthodox Differences 1. services were in Greek or local languages 2. patriarch and bishops headed the church as a group

47 Roman Catholic Differences 1. services were in Latin 2.Popehad authority over all bishops 3. Popeclaims authority over kings and emperors Similarities The base their faith on the gospel of Jesus and the Bible Their religious leaders are priests and bishops Eastern Orthodox Differences 1. services were in Greek or local languages 2. patriarch and bishops headed the church as a group 3. the emperorclaims authority over the patriarch and bishops

48 Roman Catholic Differences 1. services were in Latin 2.Popehad authority over all bishops 3. Popeclaims authority over kings and emperors 4. priests may notmarry Similarities The base their faith on the gospel of Jesus and the Bible Their religious leaders are priests and bishops They seek to convert people Eastern Orthodox Differences 1. services were in Greek or local languages 2. patriarch and bishops headed the church as a group 3. the emperorclaims authority over the patriarch and bishops 4. priests may marry

49 Roman Catholic Differences 1. services were in Latin 2.Popehad authority over all bishops 3. Popeclaims authority over kings and emperors 4. priests may notmarry 5. divorce is not permitted Similarities The base their faith on the gospel of Jesus and the Bible Their religious leaders are priests and bishops They seek to convert people They use sacraments such as baptism Eastern Orthodox Differences 1. services were in Greek or local languages 2. patriarch and bishops headed the church as a group 3. the emperorclaims authority over the patriarch and bishops 4. priests may marry 5. divorce is allowedunder certain conditions

50 Byzantine Empire Why did the Empire Decline? 1.Justinian s Plague In 542, 10,000 people were dying every day 2. Military Attacks began facing constant attacks from all sides a.by 700, only the Greekareas were left p. 117

51 Byzantine Empire under Justinian 560

52 Byzantine Empire 630

53 Byzantine Empire 740

54 Byzantine Empire The Fall 1.Unsuccessfully tried to maintain power through political marriages, bribes and diplomacy 2. late 1300s only Constantinople and immediate area left a.its walls, fleet and location helped it hold out the Ottoman Turks took Constantinople, renamed it Istanbul p. 118

55 Byzantine Empire under Justinian 560

56 Byzantine Empire 630

57 Byzantine Empire 740

58 Byzantine Empire 1095

59 Byzantine Empire 1280

60 Byzantine Empire 1360

61 Byzantine Empire 1430

62

63 Byzantine Empire How did Byzantine Culture influence Eastern Europe and Russia? p Trade routes between the Black Sea and the Baltic Sealet to exchange of ideas and culture 2.Eastern Orthodox missionariesspread their faith to the Slavicpeople of Russia and Eastern Europe a. Cyril and Methodius were missionaries who translated Bible b.created the Cyrillic alphabetso that Slavs (Russians) could read the Bible and would accept Christianity 3. Also influenced Church architecture and religious art

64

65 Byzantine Empire How did Byzantine Culture influence Eastern Europe and Russia? p. 117

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