History of Interior Design

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1 College of Engineering Department of Interior Design History of Interior Design 2nd year 1 st Semester M.S.C. Madyan Rashan Room No. 313 Academic Year

2 Course Name History of Interior Design Course Code INDS 215 Lecturer in Charge Asst. Lecturer Department/College Interior Design / Engineering Contact information Time(in hours) per week Theory: 2 h. Keywords Bizzantine Architecture, Pedentives, Hagia Sophia Objectives: At the end of this lecture, the students should be able to: Establish basic concepts about Byzantine Architecture.

3 Week Lecture Date Number of hours Topic /10/ h Introduction, course overview 7/10/ h Prehistory and early civilization interiors 3 14/10/ h Assyrian & Egyption Architecture 4 21/10/ h Greek Architecture 5 28/10/ h Rome Architecture 6 4/11/ h Early Christian Arch. 7 25/11/ h Byzantine Architecture (1) 8 2 h Byzantine 9 2 h Romanesque Architecture 10 2 h Gothic Architecture 11 2 h 12 2 h 13 2 h

4 College of Engineering Department of Interior Design Byzantine Architecture

5 Course Reading List and References: A History of Interior Design by John Pile & Judith Gura

6 Byzantine Empire was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the Greek-speaking, eastern part of the Mediterranean. It survived the fragmentation or the fall of Western Roman empire in the 5thCentury and continued to exist for another 1000 years.

7 Byzantine Empire - Early Period Timeline 330: Emperor Constantine founds a new capital of the Roman Empire at the Greek town of Byzantium, renaming the city Constantinople after himself. 395: Death of Emperor Theodosius Empire permanently split in two halves. Constantinople is capital of the Eastern Roman Empire : reign of Emperor Justinian I. Greatest expansion of Byzantine Empire. 1453: Fall of Byzantine Empire.

8 Byzantine CHARACTERS DESCRIPTION First buildings constructed were churches. Dumped Early Christian style for new domical Byzantine style. Byzantine is still official style for Orthodox church. The dome was the prevailing motif of Byzantine architecture Practice of using domes contrasts with Early Christian timber truss system Distinction: Basilican plan - Early Christian. Domed, centralized plan Byzantine.

9 Byzantine CHARACTERS DESCRIPTION Fusion of domical construction with classical columnar style. Domes of various types placed over square compartments using pendentives (a curved triangle of vaulting formed by the intersection of a dome with its supporting arches) Semi-circular arches rest directly on columns, with capitals able to support springing of arches

10 Although it is impossible to identify two similar Byzantine churches, it is still possible to identify the basic characteristics of an ideal Byzantine church. The attributes of the ideal church included: The use of a centralized church plan. The use of surrounding isles. The use of pendantives and dome on pendentives. And the use of a complex program of interior structure, lighting and decoration to create fascinating interiors.

11 Domes and Domes on Pedentives Byzantine architecture gave us the pendentive domes and the dome on pendentives The pendentive dome and the dome on pendentives provided the Byzantine architects with a unique way of adjusting the circular form of a dome roof to a square or polygonal plan.

12 This type of dome was invented by the Romans but was rarely used by them. It was the Byzantine builders who used it to create dramatic interiors In the Pantheon in Rome, the Dome roof had to be supported by a circular plan The walls of the plan had to be thick to counterbalance the forces from the Dome

13 The pendentive dome is derived by trimming the sides of a regular dome over a square plan as shown in A. The pendentive dome enables the transfer the total load of the dome to the four corners of a building, meaning that only the four corners need to be reinforced This allows the dome roof to be adapted for a square building as shown in B

14 Additionally, the top of the pendentive dome can be trim to introduce another dome on top of it as shown in C The additional dome can further be raised to introduce a cylinder between the pendentive dome and the additional dome as in D Windows can then be introduced in the cylinder enabling architects to creating dazzling interior light effects.

15 Early Prototypes (St Vitale Ravenna) Byzantine architecture has its early prototypes in two churches, San Vitale (526-47), Ravenna and in Saint Sergius and Saint Bacchus in Constantinople Ravenna once served as the seat of the Roman Empire The church is among the most important monument of Byzantine architecture It was also the prototype for the Hagia Sophia which was built 10 years later. The exterior is very plain no interest in impressing from the outside, but want to impress through the interior design and its meaning.

16 (St Vitale Ravenna AD ) The church is octagonal in plan It has a domed octagonal core surrounded by ground level ambulatory with a gallery above it. The outer wall of the ambulatory is also octagonal. It has an apse which extends from the central core to one of the 8 sides of the outer octagon.

17 The domed roof of the church is raised on a drum allowing it greater height and lighting. The dome has a diameter of 17 meters and a height of 30 meters. The Byzantine characteristics of the church include: Its central planning. The structural arrangement of its central dome. The use of surrounding isles. And the way structure, lighting and decoration have been integrated in the interior of the church.

18 Series of smaller arches supporting a centrally domed space. At one end of the plan there is an area that protrudes outward for the altar space Filled with decorative, colorful and vibrant mosaics.

19 Central image of Christ. Emphasis on natural landscape, with greenery and flowers. But, behind him is a heavenly realm characterized by a gold background. Shows Christ as the ruler of the world, and he wears purple garments.

20 Hagia Sophia, Constantinople Hagia Sophia or the church of the holy wisdom is the most accomplished master piece in the history of architecture. The church was constructed in 532 A.D. by Emperor Justinian in Constantinople now Istanbul. Hagia Sophia was the greatest vaulted space without intermediate supports that has ever been built and it remained so throughout the history of the Byzantine Empire.

21 Hagia Sophia, Constantinople Plan of Hagia Sophia. 1 Atrium 2 Narthex 3 Nave 4 Apse 5 Baptistry 6 Minaret The central domed space is extended by half domes at the front and back to give the exterior a strong lengthwise axis, which extends from the entrance narthex toward the apse facing the southeast.

22 The vast, striking interior space of this building is dependent on its daringly engineered structure.

23 The largest and most spectacular of Byzantine churches, Hagia Sophia has a vast central space that is Placed by a dome on pendentives with a circle of windows at its base. The windows appear to make the dome float. Some of the original mosaics covering the wall and dome have been restored. Columns with typically Byzantine capitals support arches that open to aisles and galleries above the aisles.

24 The church was richly decorated with mosaics throughout the centuries. They either depicted the Virgin Mother, Jesus, saints, or emperors and empresses. Other parts were decorated in a purely decorative style with geometric patterns.

25 The basilican interior has aisles on either side, separated from the central nave by arcades of columns that support balconies above. In the front of the space, an apse holds six rows of built in seats used by clergy (priest) in the Byzantine era. The building is now within the first courtyard of the Topkapi Palace.

26 Its architects were Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles, professors of geometry at the University of Constantinople The church provides an expert solution to the problem of how to place a dome on a square base The solution was to use pendantives

27 Hagia Sophia is covered by a central dome 102 feet (31 m) across, slightly smaller than the Pantheon's (Hagia Sophia, Constantinople) The dome is carried on Pendentives. The weight of the dome passes through the pendentives to four massive piers at the corners. Between them the dome seems to float upon four great arches These four concave triangular sections of masonry solved the problem of setting the circular base of a dome on a rectangular base

28 The dome seems rendered weightless by the unbroken arcade of arched windows under it, which help flood the colorful interior with light.

29

30 At Hagia Sophia, two opposing arches on the central square open into semi domes, each pierced by 3 smaller radial semidomes. Thus a hierarchy of domeheaded elements build up to create a vast oblong interior crowned by the main dome, a sequence never seen before in antiquity

31 Hagia sophia dominated church architecture after the 6th century AD For over 900 years it was the seat of the Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople and a principal setting for imperial ceremonies. Hagia Sophia was converted to a mosque at the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks under Sultan Mohammad II in Its rich figurative mosaics were covered with plaster and replaced by Islamic motifs It was for almost 500 years the principal mosque of Istanbul

32 Hagia Sophia served as model for many of the great Ottoman mosques of Constantinople such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the Rustem Pasha Mosque. After continuing as a mosque for many years, it was in 1934 turned by Turkish authorities into the Hagia Sophia Museum

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